Authors:H. Fukuma, E. De Nadai Fernandes, and A. Quinelato
High-uranium phosphate rock from Itataia, Brazil, was milled for wet-process phosphoric acid production using the dihydrate method. Uranium contained in the phosphoric acid was recovered by solvent extraction. The distribution of long-lived natural radionuclides of the 238U and 232Th decay series involved in these operations was evaluated. 226Ra, 228Ra and 210Pb were found to predominate in the phosphogypsum, while 228Th, 230Th and 232Th in the uranium-free phosphoric acid. Thorium is removed from the phosphoric acid by solvent extraction to produce a NORM-free phosphoric acid.
Authors:P. C. Favaro, P. Bode, and E. A. De Nadai Fernandes
Trace elements were determined in 27 brands of nail polish using INAA so as to estimate the impact of nail polish remainders when using (finger, toe) nail clippings as a bioindicator for epidemiological studies. Fe was found to be present up to almost 1.7% in one brand. No unambiguous correlation between trace elements and color was established, though transparent polish has the lowest trace element concentrations. An estimate of the maximum effect (no removal of the paint) indicates that over-estimates of some trace element levels in nail with more than 200.000% may occur. This study showed that if nail clippings will be used to study trace elements, very high demands have to be set to the efficiency and selectivity of the cleaning procedure.
Authors:E.J. França, E.A. De Nadai Fernandes, and M.A. Bacchi
A Ni-Cr alloy was chosen as an in-house reference material for neutron flux measurement due to the well-known physical constants of the nuclides or interest and its low cost. The quantification of the Cr and Ni content was performed by neutron activation analysis (NAA), using certified reference materials from NIST as comparators. The concertrations and standard combined uncertainties were 19.32 ± 0.07 % for Cr and 80.2 ± 1.1 % for Ni, and the material is very homogeneous for Cr and moderate homogeneous for Ni.
Authors:F. S. Tagliaferro, E. A. De Nadai Fernandes, and M. A. Bacchi
A random sampling was carried out in the coffee beans collected for the preparation of the organic green coffee reference
material in view of assessing the homogeneity and the presence of soil as impurity. Fifteen samples were taken for the between-sample
homogeneity evaluation. One of the samples was selected and 10 test portions withdrawn for the within-sample homogeneity evaluation.
Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The F-test demonstrated that the material is homogeneous for Ca, Co, Cs, K and Sc, but not homogeneous for Br, Fe, Na, Rb and Zn.
Results of terrigenous elements suggested negligible soil contamination in the raw material.
Authors:A. Ferrari, E. De Nadai Fernandes, F. Tagliaferro, M. Bacchi, and T. Martins
Tomato is amongst the most consumed vegetables in the world, not only for its culinary versatility but also for its high nutritional
value. In the last years, consumers have shown an increased concern regarding food origin and safety. The organic tomato production
has been a promising alternative for the consumer offering a safer food in relation to environmental, social and nutritional
aspects. This study assessed the chemical composition of tomato seeds produced in both conventional and organic systems by
INAA. The results showed significant differences (p≤0.05) in the mass fractions of Br, Cs, Eu, Fe, K, Mo, Na, Rb and Sm between both systems, indicating influence of the crop
management adopted in the different tomato production systems.
Authors:T. Martins, E. De Nadai Fernandes, A. Ferrari, F. Tagliaferro, and M. Bacchi
The agricultural supplies used in the organic system to control pests and diseases as well as to fertilize soil are claimed
to be beneficial to plants and innocuous to human health and to the environment. The chemical composition of six agricultural
supplies commonly used in the organic tomato culture, was evaluated by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Results
were compared to the maximum limits established by the Environment Control Agency of the São Paulo State (CETESB) and the
Guidelines for Organic Quality Standard of Instituto Biodinâmico (IBD). Concentrations above reference values were found for
Co, Cr and Zn in compost, Cr and Zn in cattle manure and Zn in rice bran.
Authors:T. Martins, E. De Nadai Fernandes, A. Ferrari, M. Bacchi, and F. Tagliaferro
The tomato culture demands large quantities of mineral nutrients, which are supplied by synthetic fertilizers in the conventional
cultivation system. In the organic cultivation system only alternative fertilizers are allowed by the certifiers and accepted
as safe for humans and environment. The chemical composition of rice bran, oyster flour, cattle manure and ground charcoal,
as well as soils and tomato fruits were evaluated by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The potential contribution
of organic fertilizers to the enrichment of chemical elements in soil and their transfer to fruits was investigated using
concentration ratios for fertilizer and soil samples, and also for soil and tomato. Results evidenced that these alternative
fertilizers could be taken as important sources of Br, Ca, Ce, K, Na and Zn for the organic tomato culture.