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Ecological indicator values, widely used botany, are empricial scales worked out for the most important factors. Values of enviromental factors determine the position of the vegetation units in a multidimensional abstarct space. Their latest version in Hungary is the catergory system of Borhidi (1995), which is adjusted ti the European systems (e. g. Ellenberg et al. 1992). Indicator values or categories, respectively, can be found, according to European practice, in a relational computerised database (Horváth et al. 1995) which is accpeted as a standard for the botanists.             An example of isoline analysis, completed using ecological indicator values of vegetation samples, is presented on a modell area in Mecsek Mts of South Hungary. It has varied vegetation with diverse kind of human interference near Pécs. From the existing indicator values applied here temperatur (TB), water demand (WB) of plants and soil reaction (RB). Each single isocurve was constructed from the similar indicator values on a computerised way (Surfer 6.1). All the curves were made by the use of avarages, single values and certain groups of ecological indicator values. Only the figures amde by the avarages are presented here, because there is no additional unformation in the case of the use of single curves.             Curves of temperature and water indicators (isoTB, isoWB) show climatic conditions changed by human impact. Curves of soil reaction (isoR) show in a given moment the actual vegetation, in time dimension that parts of enviroment wich are more sensitive to acidification.             Analysing isoecological curves, human impact is easily recognisable (e.g. in surroundings of clear-cuttings, etc.). On the basis of our results added to monitoring system enviromental impacts of future industrial and forestry establishments can be modelled. Isolines, using above-mentioned indicator values help to reveal and quantify enviromental change, which is model-valued posibility for preparing enviromental impact studies and making quick decisions.

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Birdseye primrose (Primula farinosa subsp. alpigena) is a strictly protected plant species of the Hungarian flora. Natural occurrences of the species are known from two fen meadows situated in a tectonic depression accompanying Lake Balaton. The restoration and management of recipient vegetation have a great importance because of the wide range fluctuation in number of individuals of the species for several years. In 2001 coenological behaviour was examined in classical and meso scale. Field data were collected by modified Zürich-Montpellier method and 1 m × 1 m quadrats as transects marked by environmental gradients with cover estimation by eye collecting presence-absence and quantitative data. Examining the classical and transect quadrats ecological indication, preferences and significance between species and habitats were revealed focusing on Birdseye primrose. In addition 8 soil parameters were analysed in Primula rich and Primula free sites of the habitats. The aim of our investigation was to broaden the knowledge about the biotic and abiotic habitat preferences of Birdseye primrose. According to our results not only the textural features (e.g. species composition, abundance) are insufficiant to save this species from extinction but the pattern and physiognomy of vegetation have more significance. The tussock-fen window complex provides prominent situation with its nudum surfaces offering favourable abiotic conditions and low competition. The effects of other characteristics of preferential sites (e.g. gap size, litter or moss cover) in micro scale are substantial in all probability. With this knowledge restoration and managing plan were executed focusing on two aspects: the maintenance of population size via directed seed dispersion and plantation and controlling of biotic as well as abiotic factors in the natural habitats.

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A new rock-heath association (Helleboro odori-Spiraeetum mediae Borhidi, Morschhauser et Salamon-Albert ass. nova) was recently discovered in Central Mecsek Mts which is described and discussed by the authors in the article. It represents a special skirt vegetation developing in contact with the chestnut oakwood on the edge of rocky ridges. It differs from the subcontinental rock-heath (Waldsteinio-Spiraeetum mediae Zólyomi 1936) living in the North Hungarian Middle Range by having a set of Balcanian, Pontic and sub-Mediterranean species occurring in both the shrub and herb layers. Higher indicator values of certain ecological factors, like temperature (T) and soil reaction (R) are indicating the special basiphilous and warm character of the habitat of the new community. SBT-spectrum shows the well-balanced state, the average values of VAL indicate the natural state of the community.

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Iris rich meadows have been introduced in the last couple of years as Iridetum sibiricae in Hungary, but have not been confirmed by studying sampling plots. It is a rare, edaphic, semi-natural edge vegetation of subcontinental climatic zone on alluvial surfaces. In our study characteristic species composition and vegetation structure integrated with ecological considerations are described. Analyses were carried out by phytosociological tables, chorographical types, relative ecological indicator values and social behaviour types. Most of the vegetation phenomena indicated in general descriptions and overviews are supported. This community is species rich, 3-layered vegetation with a multi-dominating species pool. High proportions of constant and accidental species, Molinietalia and indifferent coenological elements, Eurasian and European and sub-Mediterranean distribution types, competitors and specialists have large importance in this vegetation structure. Its life form strategy is based on the balance between hemicryptophytes and geophytes. Using ecological indicator values, habitat characteristics and phytogeographical status of the association had been revealed.

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Acta Biologica Hungarica
Authors:
M. Szilágyi
,
Zs. I. Németh
,
L. Albert
,
P. Sarlós
, and
E. Tyihák

On the basis of recent observations it is supposed that seminal fluids may contain - mainly in hydroxymethyl groups - formaldehyde (HCHO) and quaternary ammonium compounds as potential HCHO generators, therefore, preliminary investigations were carried out for the identification of these compounds in pig seminal fluids using OPLC, HPLC and MALDI MS techniques. The fresh pig seminal fluid was frozen in liquid nitrogen, powdered and aliquots (0.25 g) were treated with 0.7 ml ethanolic dimedone solution. The suspension was centrifuged and the clear supernatant was used for analysis by OPLC or after dilution with HPLC or MALDI MS technique. After OPLC separation of formaldemethone the fully N-methylated compounds which are stayed on the start point were separated by OPLC using an other eluent system. It has been established that the HCHO is really a normal component of the pig seminal fluid, as well. It can be isolated and identified in dimedone adduct form. The measurable amount of HCHO depended on the concentration applied of dimedone. According to OPLC and MALDI MS investigations L-carnitine is the main quaternary ammonium compound in pig seminal fluid which can generate a protection of the sperm cells against environmental and other influences. Considerable differences have been found among individuals concerning concentrations of quaternary ammonium compounds in the seminal fluid of pigs.

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The aim of the study was the identification and characterisation of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus bacteria obtained from food matrices by mass spectrometry and molecular methods. A total of 46 coagulase-positive Staphylococcus isolates were collected from different foodstuffs. The Staphylococcus isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF MS and confirmed by the presence and sequence analysis of the Staphylococcus protein A gene. Staphylococcal enterotoxin genes were also investigated by multiplex PCR. Based on the identification of strains by the MALDI-TOF MS technique and spa-typing, all strains were identified as Staphylococcus aureus. Based on their MS peak profiles, the isolates matched the spectra of three S. aureus reference strains in the Bruker MALDI Biotyper database, with identification scores higher than 1.999 in the case of all 46 (100%) isolates. The isolates showed great genetic variability. Twenty spa types were identified, from which most lineages are capable of colonizing humans. Fifty percent of the strains harboured at least one of four enterotoxin genes (seg, seh, sei, and ser), but none of the classical enterotoxin genes could be detected.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
G. Rácz
,
M. Alam
,
Ch. Arekatte
,
K. Albert
,
N. Papp
,
É. Stefanovits-Bányai
,
P. Russo
,
M. DiMatteo
, and
Gy. Vatai

Different osmotic agents (OA), such as potassium acetate (CH3COOK), potassium carbonate (K2CO3) and ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), have been examined as alternatives to the traditionally used calcium chloride (CaCl2) for osmotic distillation concentrating of clarified and pre-concentrated sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) juice. Comparison of the process performances based on the permeate fluxes has been carried out. Regarding the permeate flux results, simplified estimation of the overall mass transfer coefficient of the most effective osmotic agent and the reference (CaCl2) solution has been also performed. Furthermore, analytical methods such as total antioxidant activity (TAA) and total polyphenolic content (TPC) using spectrophotometric assays have been also carried out to evaluate the effect of the osmotic distillation on the valuable compounds content of concentrated sour cherry juice. CH3COOK was found to be the most effective, resulted more than 25% higher permeate flux during the sour cherry juice concentration. K2CO3 and NH4NO3 were less effective. The simplified mass transfer estimation showed that the CH3COOK is more effective only at near saturated concentrations compared to the CaCl2. Regarding the TAA and TPC contents, a significant loss was found in case of all OAs during the concentration procedures.

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Abstract

For a long time, olive oil has been considered for formulation of biopharmaceuticals and received a prestigious place in cuisine for its unique organoleptic and nutritional properties. Nevertheless, oxidation of fatty acids in olive oil provides short shelf-life and undesirable organoleptic properties. Thus, microencapsulation of olive oil is a considerable promising approach to maintain its quality and biological activities. The objective of this investigation was to prepare extra virgin olive oil microcapsule by sequential technologies, such as water emulsification of olive oil with wall material (matrix) and freeze drying of emulsion. The effect of wall material composition was examined to prepare microcapsule of extra virgin olive oil. Different ratios of wall materials such as maltodextrin (MD), carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), and gum arabic (GA) were used. Furthermore, effects of emulsification technologies, such as homogenisation with rotor–stator homogeniser (RSH) and cross-flow membrane emulsification (CFME) were investigated. The stability of emulsion was higher when emulsion was prepared by RSH; however, the droplet mean diameter (D32) was lower in case of RSH compared to CFME. The highest encapsulation efficiency (EE) was found as 68.96 ± 2.6% when CFME was adopted and composition of wall materials was 15 g MD, 15 g GA, and 5 g CMC.

Open access
Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors:
P. Török
,
T. Miglécz
,
O. Valkó
,
K. Tóth
,
A. Kelemen
,
Á.-J. Albert
,
G. Matus
,
A. Molnár V
,
E. Ruprecht
,
L. Papp
,
B. Deák
,
O. Horváth
,
A. Takács
,
B. Hüse
, and
B. Tóthmérész

In the present paper we report original thousand-seed weight data for the flora of the Pannonian Basin. Our goal was to demonstrate the usefulness of seed weight databases by analysing seed weight data in relation to social behaviour types and life forms. We specifically asked the following questions: (i) how the seed weights are related to social behaviour type categories; (ii) how the life form of the species influences seed weight differences between respective social behaviour types? Own weight measurements are provided for 1,405 taxa; and for 187 taxa we published seed weight data for the first time: these were mostly endemics, orchids and/or species with Pontic, Caspian or continental distribution. Several taxonomic or functional groups are underrepresented in our database, like aquatic plants, rare arable weeds and sub-Mediterranean species. Problematic taxa, some difficult-to-harvest species or species with low seed production and cultivated adventives are also underrepresented. We found that the plant strategies expressed by social behaviour types were significantly different in terms of seed weights. The lowest seed weight scores were found for natural pioneers, whereas the highest ones were found for adventives and introduced cultivated plants. Short-lived herbaceous species had significantly higher seed weight scores than herbaceous perennials. No significant differences were found between specialists and generalists within the stress tolerant group. We found that short-lived graminoids possess heavier seeds than perennial graminoids, perennial and annual forbs. Naturalness scores were negatively correlated with seed weights. Our findings showed that seed collections and databases are not only for storing plant material and seed weight data, but can be effectively used for understanding ecological trends and testing plant trait-based hypotheses. Even the identified gaps underline the necessity of further seed collection and measurements.

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