Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied for the determination of trace elements in Canoparmelia texana species collected mnonpolluted areas of Atlantic Forest and in six sites of Santo André Municipality, SP, Brazil. Concentrations
of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cs, Co, Fe, K, La, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, U, and Zn were determined and comparisons were made
between the results obtained in lichens from different sites.
Authors:M. Saiki, A. Fuga, E. Alves, M. Vasconcellos, and M. Marcelli
The atmospheric pollution of São Paulo city is a serious problem due to the expansion of industrial area, increasing number
of vehicles and population density. This work presents results obtained in the analysis of lichens collected in different
sites of São Paulo city and in non-polluted areas of Atlantic Forest. Concentrations of twenty elements were determined in
Canoparmelia texana species and comparisons were made between the results obtained in lichens from different sites. High concentrations of the
elements As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, La, Mn, Sb and Zn were found for samples collected in sites located near industries and petrochemical
plant. Br and Sb concentrations were also high in lichens from sites affected by vehicular emissions.
Authors:H. Moreira, M. Vasconcellos, E. Alves, F. Santos, and M. Saiki
In Brazil, the use of herbal medicines is very popular due to its immense flora, cultural aspects and to the popular belief
that herbs, which are of natural origin, are safe and without undesirable side effects. Aside from that public interest in
natural therapies, the use of herbal medicines has increased expressively due to the high cost of synthetic medicines. In
this study, elemental compositions of herbal medicines from the species Ginseng, Ginkgo biloba, Centella asiatica, Mulberry and Aloe vera supplied by different suppliers were evaluated by neutron activation analysis. The concentrations of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl,
Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Th, Zn and some lanthanides were determined in these samples. Comparisons made
between the results indicated differences in their elemental contents depending on the plant species, origins of the samples
and the age of the leaves. The results also showed that the herbal medicines contain elements such as Ca, Co, K, Fe, Mg and
Zn known as essential to humans and for treatment and prevention of diseases. Toxic elements such as Hg, Cd and Cu were not
detected. Elements As and Sb were detected in some samples but at very low concentrations at the μg kg−1 levels. Herbal medicine results were also compared to literature values. Biological certified reference material was analyzed
for quality control of the analytical results.
Authors:M. Saiki, E. Alves, O. Jaluul, N. Sumita, and W. Filho
Neutron activation analysis was applied to assess trace elements concentrations in head hair from healthy elderly people living
in the São Paulo metropolitan area. Concentrations of As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, La, Mn, Na, Sb, Se and, Zn were determined.
Comparisons were made between the results obtained for dyed and non-dyed hair as well as for hair from females and males of
two different age groups. The results were also compared with range values established by clinical laboratories and published
Authors:C.S. Munita, R.P. Paiva, M.A. Alves, E.F. Momose, and M. Saiki
Archaeological ceramic fragments from Água Limpa site, in São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Multivariate statistical methods including Pearson correlation coefficient, cluster and principal components analysis were used to interpret the concentration data. Rare earth and alkaline elements were highly correlated. Six principal components explained 74.9% of the total variance and five clusters were found. The sample chemical composition showed that all samples have the same provenance.
Authors:Geraldo Da Silva E Souza, Eliseu Alves, and Ant onio Flávio Dias ávila
We define and model research production at Embrapa, the major Brazilian institution responsible for applied agricultural research.
The main theoretical framework used is Data Envelopment Analysis — DEA. The economic interpretation of these models is explored
to assess scale, congestion and cost efficiencies. Efficiency results are used to test for differences among types of research
units and for the scale of operation. A further analysis of agricultural research in Brazil is carried out with the inclusion
of three research centers in Argentina. Finally, DEA estimates are compared with the fit of a stochastic frontier.
Authors:Mary Alves, Soraia Souza, S. Lima, E. Longo, A. Souza, and Iêda Santos
CaSnO3 was synthesized by the polymeric precursor
method, using different precursor salts as (CH3COO)2CaH2O,
CaCl22H2O and CaCO3,
leading to different results. Powder precursor was characterized using thermal
analysis. Depending on the precursor different thermal behaviors were obtained.
Results also indicate the formation of carbonates, confirmed by IR spectra.
After calcination and characterization by XRD, the formation of perovskite
as single phase was only identified when calcium acetate was used as precursor.
For other precursors, tin oxide was observed as secondary phase.
Authors:Márcia Silva, Mary Alves, S. Lima, L. Soledade, Elaine Paris, E. Longo, A. Souza, and Iêda Santos
Sr(Ti,Nd)O3 was synthesized in order to evaluate the influence of the amount of neodymium on the thermal and structural properties of
SrTiO3. The synthesis was carried out using the polymeric precursor method. A small mass gain was observed for the SrTiO3 and SrTi0.98Nd0.02O3 samples accompanied by an exothermic peak in the DTA curves. Other steps at higher temperatures are assigned to the combustion
of the organic material and carbonate. Elimination of defects by previous calcination of the precursors is responsible by
the short and long range ordering of the perovskite. Cubic phase was obtained for undoped and doped SrTiO3.
Authors:C. Munita, R. Paiva, M. Alves, P. de Oliveira, and E. Momose
Forty one ceramic fragment samples from Rezende archaeological site, Centralina city, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, were analyzed using INAA to determine the concentration of 24 chemical elements: As, Ba, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, U, Yb and Zn. Three multivariate statistical methods, cluster, discriminant and principal components analysis were performed on the data set. The results showed that the large majority of the samples (94%) can be considered to be manufactured using the same source of raw material.
Authors:J. A. Alves da Silva, E. Muramoto, M. T. C. P. Ribela, J. R. Rogero, and M. A. P. Camillo
The use of radiotracers in the research of animal venom has been scarce, although it allows an excellent approach to follow
the process of bioavailability, biodistribution and kinetics of toxins. The purpose of this study was to assess gyroxin action
mechanism, transport, compartments and action sites. This toxin is a thrombin-like and causes the barrel rotation syndrome.
The gyroxin was labeled with 125I and used as a tracer for the in vivo assay in mice. Blood samples and organs were collected at different time intervals,
weighed and analyzed in a gamma-counter. The data was related with tissues distribution of protease activated receptor (PAR).
Biodistribution assay allowed dividing the organs into three groups. The first one with the organs that followed the blood
kinetics, the second with the organs related to metabolisms and elimination, and the third with the organs in which the gyroxin
concentration increased during the observation period.