Authors:E. Fogarassy, E. Bekassy-Molnar, Cs. Balla, and Gy. Vatai
In this study, pressed apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) juice was concentrated using complex membrane technology with different module combinations: UF-RO-OD, UF-RO-MD, UF-NF-OD and UF-NF-MD. In case of the best combination a cross-flow polyethylene ultrafiltration membrane (UF) was applied for clarification, after which preconcentration was done using reverse osmosis (RO) with a polyamide membrane, and the final concentration was completed by osmotic distillation (OD) using a polypropylene module. The UF-RO-OD procedure resulted in a final concentrate with a 65-70 °Brix dry solid content and an excellent quality juice with high polyphenol content and high antioxidant capacity.Nanofiltration (NF) and membrane distillation (MD) were not proper economic solutions.The influence of certain operation parameters was examined experimentally. Temperatures of UF and RO were: 25, 30, and 35 °C, and of OD 25 °C. Recycle flow rates were: UF: 1, 1.5, and 2 m3 h−1; RO: 200, 400, and 600 l h−1; OD: 20, 30 and 40 l h−1. The flow rates in the module were expressed by the Reynolds number, as well. Based on preliminary experiments, the transmembrane pressures of UF and RO filtration were 4 bar and 50 bar, respectively. Each experimental run was performed three times. The following optimal operation parameters provided the lowest total cost: UF: 35 °C, 2 m3 h−1, 4 bar; RO: 35 °C, 600 l h−1, 50 bar; OD: 20, 30 and 40 l h−1; temperature 25 °C.In addition, experiments were performed for apricot juice concentration by evaporation, which technique is widely applied in the industry using vacuum and low temperature.For description the UF filtration, a dynamic model and regression by SPSS 14.0 statistics software were applied.
Authors:Sz. Szélpál, Zs. Kohány, E. Fogarassy, I. Galambos, A. Koris, J. Csanádi, Gy. Vatai, and C. Hodúr
The largest quantities of by-products of dairy processing originates from the cheese making. Whey proteins are used for animal feeding and human nutrition as well, for example in dry soups, infant formulas, and supplements. The fat components of the whey might impair its use. The aim of our experiments was to investigate the separation of the lipid fraction of whey. The microfiltration is said to be a gentle and energy efficient method for this task. During the measurements 0.2 μm microfiltration membranes were used and the membrane separation was enhanced by vibration, inserting static mixer and air sparging. The de-fatting efficiency, the retention of the whey components, the flux values, and the resistances in different combinations were compared in this paper.