The thermal decomposition products of Mohr's salt, (NH4)2Fe(SO4)2.6 H2O, in static air have been studied in the temperature range 25–800‡. Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry and thermal analysis were used in the identification of the intermediates. Fe2+ compounds containing 4, 2 and zero H2O were identified and the possibility of occurrence of (NH4)2Fe2(SO4)3 is advanced. The presence of Fe3+ was detected starting at 230‡ for a 1.6‡/min heating rate, and the compounds (NH4)Fe(SO4)2 and Fe2(SO4)3 were also identified.
Authors:C. Battisti, L. Luiselli, B. Frank, and E. Lorenzetti
Breeding bird assemblages and species present in two ‘archipelagos” of wood fragments, included in fragmented landscape of Central Italy, were studied in springs 2002 and 2003 with line transect method (1: Cornicolan hills study area: 20 fragments; 2: Anzio-Nettuno study area: 13 fragments). An area effect was shown in diversity/dominance analyses carried out by species rank/frequency diagrams obtained for the wood fragment assemblages of two ‘archipelagos’. Smaller fragments showed a lower species richness, a higher relative frequencies of first dominant species and a higher value of angular coefficient of assemblage lines. When fragment area decreases, the assemblage tendency lines in diversity/dominance diagrams show a higher slope (i.e., higher angular coefficient). Simpson dominance index was inversely correlated to fragment area: smaller fragments concentrate dominance in less species compared to larger ones. This approach suggests that the reduction in area of wood fragments could be comparable to a stress on breeding bird assemblages induced by anthropogenic habitat conversion and fragmentation, here considered as a disturbance at landscape level.
Potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) trihydrate, K4Fe(CN)6·3H2O, was heated under controlled conditions of mass and rate in a derivatograph in the presence of oxygen. The heating was stopped at different temperatures and Mössbauer spectra and X-ray diffractograms were taken on the quenched material at room temperature. The reaction pathway was studied in this way and the advantages and drawbacks of each of the techniques are described. At different stages of the thermal process we were able to show the presence of K4Fe(CN)6,α-Fe2O3, Fe3O4, Fe3C, Fe, FeO, KFeO2,Β-FeOOH, KOCN, K2CO3 and KCN.
Authors:Frank D. Buono, Mark D. Griffiths, Matthew E. Sprong, Daniel P. Lloyd, Ryan M. Sullivan, and Thomas D. Upton
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) was introduced in the DSM-5 as a way of identifying and diagnosing problematic video game play. However, the use of the diagnosis is constrained, as it shares criteria with other addictive orders (e.g., pathological gambling).
Further work is required to better understand IGD. One potential avenue of investigation is IGD’s relationship to the primary reinforcing behavioral functions. This study explores the relationship between duration of video game play and the reinforcing behavioral functions that may motivate or maintain video gaming.
A total of 499 video game players began the online survey, with complete data from 453 participants (85% white and 28% female), were analyzed. Individuals were placed into five groups based on self-reported hours of video gaming per week, and completed the Video Game Functional Assessment – Revised (VGFA-R).
The results demonstrated the escape and social attention function were significant in predicting duration of video game play, whereas sensory and tangible were not significant.
Future implications of the VGFA-R and behaviorally based research are discussed.