In this paper results concerning the archaeozoological study of the most abundant Sarmatian animal bone assemblage found so far in the North-Eastern part of the Great Hungarian Plain are presented. Similarly to other sites in the Barbaricum, remains from domestic animals dominated in the assemblage, while hunting and gathering seem to have been opportunistic activities in the life of the settlement’s inhabitants. Bone manufacturing, mostly based on working horse and cattle bones, evidenced the importance of well-known Sarmatian runners at Hajdúnánás-Fürjhalom-dűlő as well.
Following the publication of results on the Sarmatian animal bone assemblage found at Hajdúnánás-Fürjhalomdűlő, this paper presents the archaeozoological analyses of the early medieval assemblage from the same site. By its 1,220 bone remains of which 1,038 pieces could be identified to species level, the assemblage represents one of the largest Árpád Period archaeozoological materials. Aside from the common archaeozoological interpretation, bone artefacts are also presented and discussed. This is the first time a bone anvil from the North-Eastern part of Hungary is being described.
The dehydration of hydrated calcium and strontium bromides and iodides was studied by thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis. The melting in the crystallization water was distinguished from the dehydration in a self-generated atmosphere. The results of the TG and DTA curves made simultaneously were verified by measurements with a Du Pont DSC apparatus. This latter investigation was extended to the previously studied chlorides too. Correlations were found between the temperature of melting or of dehydration and the ionic radii of the respective cations and anions.
The soil cover of the world stores more carbon than that present in biomass and in the atmosphere, so the depth and distribution of soil organic matter (SOM) might be important in point of carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation. Texture, among several other factors, plays an important role in the distribution of SOM. Most national and the main international soil classification systems (Soil Taxonomy, World Reference Base for Soil Resources) have a separate unit for high clay content soils on the highest level of classification, as Vertisols. Due to the high swelling clay content, these soils open deep cracks when they are dry. During the process called “pedoturbation”, the high SOM content surface material falls into the cracks, where it accumulates and mixes with subsoil, and enhances the accumulation of SOM in great depth. Although the effect of texture on the stabilization, distribution and properties of SOM have been investigated, only little information is available on SOM distribution in high clay content soils. The objective of the present study was to analyze the vertical distribution of SOM in high clay content soils of Hungary. Our results, based on the investigations of the Hungarian TIM database supported the hypothesis that high clay content soils store significantly more SOM and in greater depth than other soils under similar climatic conditions.
Authors:E. Kuzmann, M. Gál, Cs. Vértes, and A. Vértes
57Fe Mössbauer measurements were performed on FeSO3 being in frozen solution and in crystalline states. The obtained typical Mössbauer parameters for crystalline FeSO3.3H2O are IS=1.23±0.05 mm s–1 and QS=2.50±0.01 mm s–1, while for the fozen solution: IS=1.32±0.01 mm s–1, QS=3.24±0.01 mm s–1. It show that FeII is hexaaquacoordinated in the solution.
Authors:H. Moselhy, J. Madarász, G. Pokol, S. Gál, and E. Pungor
Three different calculation methods of deriving kinetic parameters (activation energy and preexponential factor) from dynamic
TG data have been applied for the sulphate decomposition stage of the aluminum sulphate octadecahydrate. The constant rate
experiments were carried out by Derivatograph and DuPont thermobalances. The three parameters estimation methods included
a simple differential method, the classical Coats-Redfern and a new direct integral method. The fits of the curves obtained
by these procedures were compared both graphically and numerically. It was found that the direct integral method gave the
most satisfactory results. With the order type reaction models this method in each case produced the smallest residual deviation
values and the best fitting curves compared to those obtained by the other two methods. The activation parameters calculated
by the differential method were not acceptable at all, for the estimated curves were very far from the measured ones.
Authors:I. Zalai-Gaál, E. Gál, K. Köhler, and A. Osztás
In this paper, the authors discuss the dog offerings and dog burials found at the Lengyel culture (Late Neolitic/Early Copper Age) cemetery and settlement of Alsónyék-Bátaszék (sites 10/B and 5603/1). The role and symbolism of dog in the Neolithic and Early Copper Age are concerned based on archaeological, anthropological and archaeozoological data. The authors also analyse the social status of individuals next to whom the dogs have been buried. In addition to the presentation of Lengyel culture finds, a review on the Neolithic and Early Copper Age dog finds from Central and South-East Europe is given.
Authors:I. Zalai-Gaál, E. Gál, K. Köhler, and A. Osztás
Polished and perforated pendants carved from boar tusks, and jaws of boars and pigs are frequent grave furniture in the Late Neolithic and Early Copper Age cemeteries of the Carpathian Basin
. Pairs of tusk pendants were generally placed beside the dead in the early phase of the Lengyel culture, especially beside high status males, who wore these objects as symbols. The 2500 graves of the Alsónyék-Kanizsa-dűlő cemetery represent the late phase of the Lengyel culture, where instead of the pairs of tusk pendants, a huge boar tusk or a tusk disc perforated at the wider terminal was placed on the skull or beside the skull. Pig jaw grave furniture is missing here. The authors examine the occurrence of these types of grave finds in the Neolithic of the Carpathian Basin and Central and South-Eastern Europe. They try to classify the finds and determine their chronology and function.