The contamination level of grain samples by
deoxynivalenol in the grains of wheat grown in different growing areas of Slovakia between 2004 and 2006 was investigated. DON content was analysed in 139 wheat samples from the maize, sugar beet and potato growing areas. The highest mean DON content was found in the potato growing area and lowest in the maize growing area. There was a positive correlation between DON content and rainfall in the growing areas. A negative correlation was found between the content of DON and temperature. The limit specified by the EU 1.25 mg kg
DON content exceeded 9.3% of the samples from the maize growing area, 5% from the sugar beet growing area and 14.3% from the potato growing area. The results show the tendency of increasing toxin contamination of wheat grown from the maize and potato growing areas and also the need for more information on the problem about the distribution of
in wheat grown in Slovakia.
Avena spp. were artificially inoculated with Fusarium culmorum Sacc. (FC) and F. graminearum Schwabe (FG) causing Fusarium head blight (FHB). This disease is often accompanied by the accumulation of Fusarium mycotoxins mainly deoxynivalenol (DON) in grains. The contaminated grains with this mycotoxin are toxic to their consumers. Genotypes Avena spp. with low DON accumulation in grains can be used as genetic resources suitable for the formation of new resistant varieties of oats against FHB caused by fungi FC and FG. The aim was to find out and to compare the potential for mycotoxin accumulation in grains between genotypes of Avena spp. after artificial inoculation panicles by FC and FG using three spray methods and identify genotypes of Avena (A. abyssinica, A. byzantina, A. canariensis, A. fatua, A. ludoviciana, A. nuda, A. sativa, A. sterilis, A. strigosa) with low toxin accumulation in whole grain. The average accumulations of DON in the grains of Avena spp. gradually increased from the spray inoculation (0.68 mg · kg−1), spray + polyethylene (PE) bag cover 24 hrs (2.75 mg · kg−1) and spray + PE bag/48 hrs. (9.46 mg · kg−1) methods. We found out that after application of each used method, the high DON accumulation in grains was found in A. canariensis, and low DON levels were found in A. byzantine and A. sterilis.
Authors:Z. Šramková, E. Gregová, S. Šliková, and E. Šturdík
The main goal of our work was to determine the composition of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) in 84 cultivars of common wheat (
L.) originating from eight European countries and registered in Slovakia. Eleven alleles and 18 allelic compositions were detected. The most frequent HMW-GS patterns were “Null”, 7 + 9, 5 + 10 and “Null”, 7 + 8, 5 + 10 which were observed in twenty-seven (31%) and fourteen (16.1%) cultivars, respectively. The allele 5 + 10, which has the strongest association with good bread-making quality, was present in 75% of analysed accessions. The wheat-rye 1BL/1RS translocation was identified in eleven cultivars.
Authors:E. Gregová, D. Mihálik, S. Šliková, and Z. Šramková
High molecular weight glutenin and
translocation employing the standard sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS-PAGE) and acid (A-PAGE) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis methods were classified in 43 Slovak wheat cultivars registered between 1976 and 2006. Total number of 9 alleles was detected at all
loci. The most frequent HMW-GS alleles were “Null” for
, 7+9 for
and 5+10 for
, respectively. At the same time these alleles also constituted the most frequent HMW-GS genotype and phenotype-0, 7+9, 5+10. Such HMW-GS combination was found in 48.8% of all genotypes analyzed in
. Eleven different HMW-GS genotype-phenotype combinations were found, occurring at various frequencies.
Authors:L. Tanács, E. Gregová, K. Bodnár, F. Lantos, and T. Monostori
Experiments were carried out with wheat varieties GK Garaboly, GK Kalász, GK Verecke, GK Petur sown at the Öthalom experimental station of the Cereal Research Non-Profit Ltd. in monoculture, in a four-parallel random block design. NPK fertilizer treatments of different level were combined with Artea + Amistar Xtra fungicide treatments of increasing doses and spectrum.The fertilizer and fertilizer + fungicide treatments had a statistically reliable effect at the 0.1% level on the technological water absorption only while it was indifferent on the values such as wet gluten content, gluten spreading, baking value and falling number. On annual level reliable treatment × variety interactions could be detected for each characteristic compared to control.Increasing fertilizer doses tendentiously improved the values of wet gluten, baking value and technological water absorbance. In the case of certain treatment combinations, however, these values exhibited a tendentious decrease as the counter-effect of fungicides applied at the heading stage of development. Our results revealed that the baking quality of grains was determined by the common effect of various doses of fertilizers and fungicides Artea and Amistar Xtra applied at heading. This counter-effect proved to be unfavourable in the case of certain baking characteristics.Six different alleles or allelic pairs were revealed in the sample of genotypes — 1, 2* (locus Glu-A1), 6 + 8, 7 + 8 and 7 + 9 (locus Glu-B1) and 5 + 10 (Glu-D1). Quality scores for the wheat cultivar varied from 8 to 10. Cultivar GK Kalász had the highest quality score 10.
Authors:S. Šliková, M. Havrlentová, P. Hauptvogel, Ľ. Mendel, E. Gregová, and V. Šudyová
Winter wheat landraces and modern Slovak cultivars were inoculated with the pathogen Fusarium culmorum Sacc. by spraying in May 2008, in plot experiments under natural conditions in Piešťany, Slovakia. The objective was to examine the responses of the tested genotypes to inoculation with F. culmorum and to determine changes in the β-D-glucan content in the kernels. The area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC), Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) and the β-D-glucan and deoxynivalenol (DON) contents in the grains were determined using Megazyme and Ridascreen® Fast DON assay kits. Wheat landraces had lower AUDPC and FDK, and accumulated 67.4% less DON than modern cultivars. There were highly significant correlations (P < 0.01) between AUDPC and DON content, between FDK and DON, and between AUDPC and FDK. The correlation between β-D-glucan content and AUDPC was also significant (P < 0.05), but not correlations between β-D-glucan and other traits. The β-D-glucan content in the grain of wheat genotypes artificially inoculated with F. culmorum was lower than in grains without infection. The wheat landraces contained more β-D-glucan than modern cultivars and showed higher resistance to F. culmorum. The three wheat landraces had significantly lower spike and kernel infection compared to modern cultivars and could be used to breed elite cultivars with enhanced Fusarium head blight resistance.
Authors:M. Hudcovicová, V. Šudyová, S. Šliková, E. Gregová, J. Kraic, F. Ordon, D. Mihálik, V. Horevaj, and Z. Šramková
Marker-assisted selection (MAS) is an efficient modern method for transferring alleles or specific chromosome segments including important agronomic traits into elite cultivars. This approach makes genotypic selection possible, whereby the selection process is more effective. The Research Institute of Plant Production Piešťany uses genetic markers linked to important traits in the following pre-breeding programmes: 1. development of winter barley lines resistant to BaYMV/BaMMV, 2. development of spring barley lines resistant to BYDV, 3. development of winter wheat lines resistant to leaf rust (gene pyramiding), 4. improvement of wheat quality by new combination(s) of known HMW-GS and/or by introduction of novel HMW-GS alleles. Several hundreds of genotypes are usually analysed for the presence or absence of linked molecular markers and selected for use in breeding programmes.