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  • Author or Editor: E. Győri x
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The appearance of Fusarium species and the micronutrient content of pea varieties were investigated in different plant development periods. Field experiments were carried out for three years on six dry pea varieties grown without irrigation on a soil infected with Fusarium species. Green and dry plants divided into shoots (including stems and leaves), pods and seeds were used to determine the presence of Fusarium species and the concentration of micro- and macroelements. In the green shoots and seeds of varieties registered as susceptible to Fusarium oxysporum, other species such as F. solani and F. culmorum were also detected. F. oxysporum and F. solani were found in the dry seeds not only in varieties susceptible to F. oxysporum but in resistant ones as well. In the case of susceptible varieties the phosphorus and nickel contents in the flowering plants decreased significantly compared to those in varieties registered as resistant to F. oxysporum. In later stages of plant development the K and Mo contents increased significantly in the green shoots and the accumulation of Mn and Mo in the green seeds intensified. The very low B concentration in the dry pods contributed to the internal infection of dry seeds by decreasing the stability of the cell wall. In the dry seeds of varieties susceptible to F. oxysporum a considerable decrease in the S content was found parallel with marked increases in the Mo and Mn contents. The sugar content of green seeds decreased significantly in peas susceptible to F. oxysporum, but neither the protein, nor the starch or sugar contents of the dry seeds decreased in comparison to the resistant ones.

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It is well known that surface geology may significantly affect strong ground motion and hence it should be incorporated into seismic hazard estimation at a specific site. Numerical and empirical methods are used to determine the site effect. On areas with moderate seismicity the empirical methods are based on microtremor measurements. Solely the single station methods, for example the H/V spectral ratio technique, could be used in the absence of a nearby reference station situated on rock site. The one year long noise measurements of 8 stations belonging to the Hungarian Microseismic Monitoring Network have made it possible the testing of this method. The stations are situated in the middle part of Hungary. All seismometers are triaxial LE-3D high sensitivity 1 Hz geophones. Three stations are situated on hard rocks while five ones on loose site above a deep sedimentary basin with more than 1000m thick sediments. The large amount of noise data have made it possible to examine the stability of the method. The examinations have shown that the computed spectral ratio curves are very stable in time. While all stations on rock sites show nearly at H/V spectral ratio, all stations on soft sites show a peak at very low, 0.1- 0.2Hz frequencies. Analytical computations have been carried out to verify this low frequency behaviour and have shown that these peaks are due to the fundamental frequency of the overall sediment thickness. H/V ratios have also been calculated from seismograms of weak local earthquakes, so they could be compared with ratios obtained from noise measurements.

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The rheological properties of seven winter wheat cultivars from two harvest years were studied. Rheological testing included two empirical rheological methods, alveograph and extensograph. Principal component analysis on the studied rheological parameters showed that the alveograph and extensograph parameters are influenced by entirely different factors. The first component was responsible solely for the extensograph parameters, primarily for the resistance properties of dough samples. The second component affected the extensograph extensibility (E) and alveograph tenacity (P) parameters as well, in spite of the fact that these parameters refer to different properties of dough. The third component explained only alveograph parameters, such as P, L and G values. The Pearson’s correlation coefficients showed that the extensograph area parameter primarily depends on the maximum resistance to extension of dough (r=0.91). The extensibility and resistance at a constant extension of 5 cm properties did not show such strong relationship with the area parameter (r=0.56 and 0.65, respectively). The relationship between the extensograph maximum resistance and extensibility parameters was positive (r=0.20), while the correlation coefficient between alveograph P and L value was negative (r=0.34).

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The role of special corns in human diets is increasing as a result of their favourable nutritional values. Little is known about mineral contents of different red and blue corns, although they may help to inhibit deficiency diseases mainly in the developing countries. During this study, mineral contents (15 elements) of 3 red and 9 blue corn varieties were examined with ICP-OES and ICP-MS. Highest contents of macroelements were as follows: P (3859.5±562.1 mg kg −1 ), K (4325.0±469.5 mg kg −1 ) and Mg (1450.0±104.6 mg kg −1 ) in the variety Black Mexican, S (1555.0±128.6 mg kg −1 ) in Santo Domingo Blue. In case of microelements, iron, zinc and selenium were highlighted. Except one genotype, iron contents were above 30 mg kg −1 . Blaumais, Hopi Turquoise and Hopi Blue contained more than 40 mg kg −1 (41.0–46.3), which were above values published in the literature (10.0 mg kg −1 in average). For zinc, we measured 15.2–31.5 mg kg −1 . Selenium contents (0.1–0.2 mg kg −1 ) were also higher than in the literature (0.08 mg kg −1 ). Plant selection could utilize variability of special element contents in enhancing these phenomena.

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Low velocity surface layers can significantly increase ground accelerations during earthquakes. When saturated sandy sediments are present, because of pore pressure increase, decrease of soil strength or even liquefaction can occur. Some volume change follows the dissipation of excess pore pressure after the earthquake resulting surface settlements. To determine the liquefaction probability and post-liquefaction settlement is very important for critical facilities e.g. for the site of Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary. Pore pressure increase and so the liquefaction and surface settlements depend on the characteristics of seismic loading and soil parameters. To quantify the extent of these phenomena is rather difficult. Uncertainties arise both from the probabilistic nature of the earthquake loading and from the simplifications of soil models as well. In the paper, the most important semi-empirical and dynamical effective stress methods for liquefaction and post-liquefaction settlement assessment are summarized. Most significant contributors to the uncertainties are highlighted, and particular examples through the investigation of Paks NPP site are given. Finally, a probabilistic procedure is proposed where the uncertainties will be taken into account by applying a logic tree methodology. At the same time, the uncertainties are reduced by the use of site-specific UHRS and stress reduction factors.

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