A simple, rapid, and sensitive liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of zinc pyrithione (ZnPT) and pyrithione (PT) in shampoos. The method consisted of a liquid–liquid extraction for sample preparation. The mass spectrometer was operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via the positive electrospray ionization interface. A linear regression (weighted 1/x) was used to fit calibration curves over the concentration range of 50–2000 ng/mL for both ZnPT and PT. Excellent linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9996) was achieved for all. The method was validated and found to be accurate (95.9–108.2% for ZnPT and 94.9–110.4% for PT), precise, and selective. Analytes in shampoos were found to be stable in the autosampler (6 °C for 6 h), in room temperature (for 6 h), and after three freeze–thaw cycles, and recovery of analytes was reproducible (90.8–94.6% for ZnPT and 90.2–96.3% for PT).
The extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) using a γ-pre-irradiated N,N′-dimethyl-N,N′-dibutyltetradecyl malonamide (DMDBTDMA)
modified with N,N′-dihexyloctanamide (DHOA) in n-dodecane (NDD) at 4.5M HNO3 has been studied as a function of the absorbed dose up to 2×106 Gray. The distribution ratios of Am(III) and Eu(III) were almost constant until a dose of 1×105 Gray and then they decreased gradually up to a dose of 2×106 Gray. The decrease of the distribution ratios of Am(III) and Eu(III) are due to the decreasing concentration of the DMDBTDMA
by a γ-pre-irradiation and these results were supported by a determination of the DMDBTDMA concentration with a gas chromatography
method. The distribution ratios of Am(III), Eu(III), Ce, Nd and Y with γ-pre-irradiated (DMDBTDMA-DHOA)/NDD have also been
studied as a function of the nitric acid concentration and the extraction temperature.
We have constructed an external beam proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) system for trace element analysis of biological and environmental samples. Optimization of sample preparation and experimental PIXE set up has produced a rapid, accurate, sensitive, and reliable PIXE analysis procedure. The analytical procedure was evaluated using maternal scalp hair from pregnant women 16–19 weeks' gestation. The samples were irradiated with 3.5 MeV protons from the Rutgers Nuclear Physics Department's 8 MV Tandem FN Van de Graaff accelerator. The concentrations of the elements calcium (Ca) to cadmium (Cd) in hair are reported for 50 subjects. The analytical procedure is suitable for non-invasive clinical analysis for evaluation of nutritional states and for environmental exposure to toxic metals.
This study was carried out to investigate the characteristics of an oxidative-dissolution of fission products (FP) when uranium
(U) is dissolved in a Na2CO3–H2O2 carbonate solution. Simulated FP-oxides which contained 12 components were added to the solution to examine their dissolution
behaviors. It was found that H2O2 was an effective oxidant to minimize the dissolution of FP. For the 0.5 M Na2CO3–0.5 M H2O2 solution, such elements as Re, Te, Cs, and MoO2 were dissolved with yields of 98 ± 2%, 98 ± 2%, 93 ± 2%, and 26 ± 3%, respectively, for 2 h. Among these components, Re,
Te, and Cs were completely dissolved within 10–20 min without regard to the concentrations of Na2CO3, and H2O2 due to their high solubility in the carbonate solution with and without H2O2. However, MoO2 was very slowly dissolved and its yield was 29 ± 3% for 4 h. The pH of the dissolved solution revealed the greatest influence
on the dissolution yields of the FP, exhibiting the most effective pH condition in the range of 10–12 in order to create a
considerable suppression of the co-dissolution of FP during the oxidative-dissolution of U.
A procedure is described to extend the current radiochemical method of seawater analysis for Pu and Am including Np. Short-lived 239Np tracer was prepared by separation from its 243Am parent. Irish Sea Water reference material (IAEA-381) containing known concentrations of 237Np, Pu isotopes and 241Am was used to test the procedure for small water volumes. Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used in addition to alpha spectrometry for measurement of 237Np in the purified final Np fractions.
A pyrochemical processing has become one of the potential technologies for a future nuclear fuel cycle. An integrated multi-physics
simulation and electrotransport model of a molten-salt electrolytic process are proposed and discussed with respect to the
recovery of pure uranium when using thermochemical data. This study has been performed to provide information for diffusion
boundary layers between the molten salt (KCl-LiCl) and electrode. The diffusion-controlled electrochemical model demonstrate
a prediction of the electrotransport behaviors of LWR spent fuel as a function of the time up to the corresponding electrotransport
satisfying a given applied current based on a galvanostatic electrolysis.
A reference material designed for the determination of anthropogenic and natural radionuclides in sediment, IAEA-384 (Fangataufa
Lagoon sediment), is described and the results of certification are presented. The material has been certified for 8 radionuclides
(40K, 60Co, 155Eu, 230Th, 238U, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am). Information values are given for 12 radionuclides (90Sr, 137Cs, 210Pb (210Po), 226Ra, 228Ra, 232Th, 234U, 235U, 239Pu, 240Pu and 241Pu). Less reported radionuclides include 228Th, 236U, 239Np and 242Pu. The reference material may be used for quality management of radioanalytical laboratories engaged in the analysis of radionuclides
in the environment, as well as for the development and validation of analytical methods and for training purposes. The material
is available from IAEA in 100 g units.