Authors:N. A. Santos, R. Rosenhaim, M. B. Dantas, T. C. Bicudo, E. H. S. Cavalcanti, A. K. Barro, I. M. G. Santos, and A. G. Souza
Biodiesel is an increasingly attractive alternative to diesel fuel. The main component of Babassu biodiesel is lauric acid (C12:0), which is a saturated fatty acid with a high melting point. Controlling flow properties, such as viscosity and the cold filter plugging point, is critical because viscosity affects atomization, and crystal formation resulting from decreases in temperature can negatively affect engine starting and performance. To evaluate its flow characteristics more fully, the rheological properties of babassu biodiesel were analyzed, taking into account variations in temperature. The crystallization temperature was determined by modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MT-DSC). The curve of biodiesel viscosity as a function of the biodiesel refrigeration temperature contained an inflection point (corresponding to a steep increase in viscosity) that was coincident with both the transition from a Newtonian-type flow to a pseudoplastic-type flow and the crystallization temperature obtained by MT-DSC, indicating that the appearance of crystals in the biodiesel increased its viscosity. The rheological properties of fatty acid methyl and ethyl mixtures (FAME and FAEE) with metropolitan diesel were also evaluated; a higher FAME percentage reduced viscosity in blends up to B100.
Authors:M. B. Dantas, A. R. Albuquerque, L. E. B. Soledade, N. Queiroz, A. S. Maia, I. M. G. Santos, A. L. Souza, E. H. S. Cavalcanti, A. K. Barro, and A. G. Souza
Even not being described in the EN 14112 standard, PDSC has been used for the determination of the biodiesel oxidative stability, by OIT and OT measurements. In this study, biodiesel blends were obtained by mixing soybean (BES) and castor (BEM) ethyl esters and its induction periods were measured by Rancimat and PDSC. The blends (BSMX) showed intermediate values of OSI, OT, and OIT, compared with BES and BEM. Although, the molar fraction of the components varied linearly in BSMX, OSI, OT, and OIT values increased exponentially in relation to the castor biodiesel amount in the blends. Introduction of castor oil biodiesel increased the blend stability, so the BSM30 blend reached the OSI limit of 6 h. OSI, OIT, and OT showed a high-linear correlation, pointing out that PDSC can be used in the analysis of this kind of biodiesel, with a smaller sample and analysis time, as compared to Rancimat. The use of biodiesel blends was a good alternative in the correction of the oxidative stability of the final product without the need of antioxidant addition.
Authors:M. L. A. Tavares, N. Queiroz, I. M. G. Santos, A. L. Souza, E. H. S. Cavalcanti, A. K. D. Barros, R. Rosenhaim, L. E. B. Soledade, and A. G. Souza
The higher is the degree of unsaturation in ester chain of a biodiesel, the smaller is its oxidation stability. Sunflower biodiesel obtained by the ethyl route possesses a high amount of unsaturated fatty acids, mainly oleic acid (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2), thus being more prone to the oxidation process. In Brazil, with the purpose of meeting the specifications of the Brazilian National Agency of Petroleum, Natural Gas and Biofuels (ANP), antioxidant additives, from synthetic and natural origins, have been added to the biofuel. Antioxidants are an alternative to prevent the oxidative deterioration of the fatty acid derivatives, as they are substances able to reduce the oxidation rate. In this study, the oxidative stability of sunflower biodiesel, obtained by the ethyl route and additivated with different concentrations of the antioxidants butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and t-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), was evaluated by means of Pressure differential scanning calorimetry (P-DSC) and the Accelerated oxidative stability test (Rancimat, Method EN 14112). The results obtained by the two techniques showed the same oxidation tendency. Thus, P-DSC can be used as an alternative to determine the oxidative stability of biodiesel. The antioxidant TBHQ, added to biodiesel at the concentrations of 2000 and 2500 mg kg−1, raised the oxidation induction time to a value higher than 6 h, the limit established by the Resolution ANP number 7/2008, thus being the best alternative among the studied antioxidants.