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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: Zs. Major, E. Csajági, Zs. Kneffel, T. Kováts, I. Szauder, Z. Sidó, and Gábor Pavlik

Characteristics of the athlete’s heart have been investigated mostly in the left ventricle (LV); reports referring to the right ventricle (RV) have only appeared recently. The aim of the present study was to compare the training effects on RV and LV in elite male endurance athletes. To this end, echocardiography was conducted in 52 elite endurance athletes (A) and in 25 non-athletes (NA). Differences between A and NA in the morphology was more marked in the RV (body-size-matched (rel.)) long axis diastolic diameter (RVLADd): 63.4 ± 6.3 vs. 56.4 ± 6.3; rel. short axis diastolic diameter (RVSADd): 27.3 ± 3.6 vs. 23.6 ± 2.7 mm/m, RV diastolic area 28 ± 5.0 vs. 21.3 ± 4.3 cm2 in all cases, p < 0.001) than in the LV (rel. LVLADd: 63.8 mm/m ± 5.6 vs. 60.7 mm/m ± 6.6, p < 0.05, rel.LVSADd 37.8 ± 3.1 vs. 35.3 ± 2.4, no difference). In the athletes ratios of peak early to late diastolic filling velocity (2.07 ± 0.51 vs. 1.75 ± 0.36, p < 0.01), the TDI-determined E’/A’ ratio in the septal (1.89 ± 0.55 vs. 1.62 ± 0.55, p < 0.05) and lateral (2.62 ± 0.72, vs. 2.18 ± 0.87, p < 0.001) walls were significantly higher than in NA only in the LV. Results indicate that in male endurance athletes morphologic adaptation is similar or slightly stronger in the RV than in the LV, functional adaptation seems to be stronger in the LV.

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Abstract  

As decay products, helium isotopes can clearly indicate the presence of tritium and alpha decaying isotopes in a closed system. This study presents the helium and neon measurements and their interpretation of long-term headspace gas investigations in L/ILW waste drums from Paks Nuclear Power Plant and closed vaults of the Radioactive Waste Treatment and Disposal Facility, Püspökszilágy, Hungary. Development of special sampling methods and preparation lines as well as isotope-analytical measurements of the headspace gas samples were done in the Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies in the ATOMKI. In the gas samples helium isotopes as well as neon isotopes have been determined mass spectrometrically. While neon content can be of atmospheric origin only, helium can be produced either by alpha decay (4He) or decay of tritium (3He). 3H/4He and He/Ne ratios have been used to determine the different origin of the helium isotopes. Helium isotope ratios always represented 3He enrichment in the headspace gases produced by the decay of the tritium in the waste. Using the recent 3He concentration in headspace gas the total amount of 3H restored in L/ILW vaults was estimated. The investigated seven different vaults were closed between 1979 and 1995 when they had been full with L/ILW. The calculated tritium activities based on the He measurements showed good agreement with the documented isotope inventory of the vaults. Typical tritium activity concentrations were between 0.1 and 10 Bq/L gas in the drums and between 10 and 1000 Bq/L gas in the vaults. Additionally, one drum showed a higher He/Ne ratio compared to air, which clearly indicates 4He excess, thus the presence an alpha source in the waste.

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