The dominant rodent species in Central European agricultural landscapes are granivorous mouse species and herbivorous common voles. Although our knowledge of European wood mice is relatively good, there is a distinct lack of information on pygmy field mice inhabiting Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia. In this study, we examine the food quality of pygmy field mice in relation to environmental and population factors, and compare the food quality of related mouse species and common voles living in the same study plots. The dietary quality of the pygmy field mouse is similar to that of other mouse species; however, the food quality of pygmy field mice and common voles differed substantially, with mice having lower and more variable nitrogen content. For both rodent species, factors such as body size, age and sex had no influence on diet quality. Pygmy field mouse diet was mainly dependent on season, while total abundance had greatest influence on common vole diet.