Numerous Fusarium species have been associated with the Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease of wheat, barley and other small-grain cereals, reducing worldwide cereal crop yields and, as a consequence of their mycotoxin production in the cereal grain, having an impact on both human and animal health.The year 2010 was extremely favourable for Fusarium head blight pathogens. Over a hundred symptomatic wheat heads were collected from various locations in Hungary. The aim was to determine the diversity of the Fusarium species infecting winter wheat ears. A total of 86 Fusarium spp. were morphologically identified from diseased kernels. F. sambucinum was found to be present in two of the Martonvásár samples. This pathogen had only previously been detected extremely sporadically. The species F. culmorum and F. verticillioides were found at a much lower rate than expected, while none of the isolates were identified as F. poae. On the basis of the results, 95% of the isolates belonged to the Fusarium graminearum species complex.
Our objectives were to establish a GC method capable of quantitative analysis of terpenoids without derivatisation and to examine the amount of β-sitosterol extracted from Morus alba L. leaf and stem bark by use of traditional organic solvent extraction and supercritical-fluid extraction (SFE). To measure β-sitosterol content without derivatization, GC-FID was used with 5-α-cholestan-3-one as internal standard. To identify terpenoid constituents, GC-MS was used; β-sitosterol, phytol, lanost-7-en-3-on, α-amyrin, β-amyrin, and lupeol were identified. We established that for Morus leaf the best SFE method for β-sitosterol was pilot scale SFE; the β-sitosterol content of this extract was higher than that of the hexane solvent extract. Among analytical SFE conditions, 200 bar for 90 min and 300 bar for 60 min resulted in extraction of the most β-sitosterol. For mulberry stem bark, solvent extraction with hexane and SFE at 400 bar and 40°C for 60 min proved the best methods.
Factors affecting the cellulase production of Aspergillus niger using sugar cane bagasse as carbon source were investigated. The highest enzyme activities were obtained, when the culture medium was supplemented with 0.133% tryptone as nitrogen source. The rate of cellulase production was considerably increased when 0.5% Tween 60 was added to the production medium. For FPA and b-glucosidase production pH 5.0, while for CMC-ase pH 5.5 was found to be optimal. The highest cellulase activities were obtained at 30 °C and 300 r.p.m. The highest saccharification degree was achieved, when alkali treated rice straw was used as substrate. The main objective of the present study was to examine the possibilities of lactic acid production from alkali treated rice straw using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation technique with T. koningii cellulases and L. delbrueckii. The highest conversion of cellulose was obtained using 6% alkaline treated rice straw supplemented with 1.2 mg enzyme/g substrate at pH 4.8 and 45 °C.
Common faint and the so-called situational syncope are usually listed together in the category of “neurally mediated syncope”. Although vasovagal syncope has been subject of extensive research in the past years, its mechanism is not fully understood. Much less information is available about situational syncope. Numerous entities in this heterogeneous group are related to excessive straining (e.g. weight lifter's or trumpet player's syncope). Cough syncope is also associated with tremendous intrathoracic, intravascular, and even intracranial pressure fluctuations. Although reflex responses are certainly triggered during cough, their relative role, and their analogy with the classical vasovagal reaction are not clear. We report a case of vasovagal syncope and cough reaction occurring in the same subject during laboratory testing.
Elemental concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb have been determined in erythrocyte and blood plasma samples from normal and diabetic human pregnancies. Average values, the dependence of the concentrations on the time during gestation period, the correlation coefficients for pairs of elements as well as for the same elements in plasma and erythrocyte samples are given. A marked difference appeared in a number of cases between normal and diabetic pregancies.
Infection with fungal pathogens on wheat varieties with different levels of resistance was tested at ambient (NC, 390 ppm) and elevated (EC, 750 ppm) atmospheric CO2 levels in the phytotron. EC was found to affect many aspects of the plant-pathogen interaction. Infection with most fungal diseases was usually found to be promoted by elevated CO2 level in susceptible varieties. Powdery mildew, leaf rust and stem rust produced more severe symptoms on plants of susceptible varieties, while resistant varieties were not infected even at EC. The penetration of Fusarium head blight (FHB) into the spike was delayed by EC in Mv Mambo, while it was unaffected in Mv Regiment and stimulated in Mv Emma. EC increased the propagation of FHB in Mv Mambo and Mv Emma. Enhanced resistance to the spread of Fusarium within the plant was only found in Mv Regiment, which has good resistance to penetration but poor resistance to the spread of FHB at NC. FHB infection was more severe at EC in two varieties, while the plants of Mv Regiment, which has the best field resistance at NC, did not exhibit a higher infection level at EC.The above results suggest that breeding for new resistant varieties will remain a useful means of preventing more severe infection in a future with higher atmospheric CO2 levels.