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Background and aims

Epidemiological data have suggested that the prevalence of co-occurring personality disorders is particularly high in people with gambling disorder (GD). Among the personality disorders, obsessive–compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) appears to be the most common problem. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical presentation of GD with and without co-occurring OCPD.

Methods

We studied 25 subjects with current GD and lifetime diagnosis of OCPD. They were matched for age and gender with 25 individuals with current GD but no lifetime diagnosis of any personality disorder.

Results

Subjects with GD and OCPD demonstrated (a) lower severity of gambling symptoms, (b) slower progression from recreational gambling to full-blown GD, (c) preferred individual forms of betting, (d) identified more triggers to gambling (specially the availability of money and stress); and (e) reported less negative impact on relational problems due to GD.

Conclusions

Our research provides further insight on GD co-occurring with OCPD, such as increasing social support and improvement of coping skills, especially to deal with financial difficulties and stress. Our findings may lead to more customized and effective therapeutic approaches to this frequent comorbidity.

Open access

Abstract  

In this work, the influence of attapulgite concentration on the nucleating efficiency of isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and on the kinetics of non-isothermal crystallization were ascertained.The study was conducted by DSC. The nucleating efficiency was determined according to the procedure described by Fillon and the kinetics of non-isothermal crystallization was determined using Ozawa's method using cooling rates of 2, 5 and 10C min−1.Our results indicate that both the relative crystallinity and the crystallization temperature increase with filler content and that a maximum occurs at 2% mass/mass filler content. Both parameters decrease with increasing cooling rates. The Ozawa's exponent tended to increase with temperature and filler content.

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Abstract  

Samples of the MgO–Al2O3–SiO2 ternary system, constituted by 28.5 mol% ofMgO, 28.5 mol% of Al2O3 and 43mol%of SiO2, were activated in a roll mill and calcined at different temperatures. The influence of the grinding time, the used SiO2 precursor and activation medium, furthermore the mass ratio between the powdered sample and zirconia cylinders was investigated on the reactivity of the MgO–Al2O3–SiO2 ternary system. FTIR spectra and the X-ray powder diffraction patterns indicates the formation of Mg(OH)2 at 393 K, of forsterite (MgSi2O5) and enstatite (MgSiO3) at 1223 K and of spinel (MgAl2O4) between 1223 and 1523 K in some samples. The presence of cordierite (Mg2Al2Si5O18) was observed at 1523 K, a reaction pathway concerning its formation was proposed.

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Background and aims

Gambling disorder (GD) may have its onset in a wide range of ages, from adolescents to old adults. In addition, individuals with GD tend to seek treatment at different moments in their lives. As a result of these characteristics (variable age at onset and variable age at treatment seeking), we find subjects with diverse duration of illness (DOI) in clinical practice. DOI is an important but relatively understudied factor in GD. Our objective was to investigate clinical and neurocognitive characteristics associated with different DOI.

Methods

This study evaluated 448 adults diagnosed with GD. All assessments were completed prior to treatments being commenced.

Results

Our main results were: (a) there is a negative correlation between DOI and lag between first gambling and onset of GD; (b) lifetime history of alcohol use disorder (AUD) is associated with a longer duration of GD; (c) the presence of a first-degree relative with history of AUD is associated with a more extended course of GD; and (d) there is a negative correlation between DOI and quality of life.

Discussion

This study suggests that some important variables are associated with different DOI. Increasing treatment-seeking behavior, providing customized psychological interventions, and effectively managing AUD may decrease the high levels of chronicity in GD. Furthermore, research on GD such as phenomenological studies and clinical trials may consider the duration of GD in their methodology. DOI might be an important variable when analyzing treatment outcome and avoiding confounders.

Open access
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: Nadábia de Souza, F. de Souza, I. Basílio, Ana Medeiros, E. Oliveira, Ana Santos, R. Macwdo, and R. Macędo
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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Gustavo C. Medeiros, Daniela G. Sampaio, Eric W. Leppink, Samuel R. Chamberlain, and Jon E. Grant

Background and aims

Previous analyses have highlighted significant associations between gambling disorder (GD)/subsyndromal GD and increased rates of anxiety symptoms and anxiety disorders relative to the general population. However, less is known about how anxiety symptoms influence the clinical presentation of gambling problems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between anxiety symptoms, gambling activity, and neurocognition across the spectrum of gambling behavior.

Methods

The sample consisted of 143 non-treatment-seeking young adults (aged 18–29 years), in which 63 individuals (44.1%) were classified as recreational gamblers, 47 (32.9%) as having subsyndromal GD, and 33 (23.1%) met criteria for GD.

Results

The main findings were: (a) there was a positive correlation between anxiety severity and gambling severity measured by the number of DSM-5 GD criteria met; (b) there was a positive correlation between anxiety severity and attentional impulsiveness; (c) subjects with suicidality presented higher levels of anxiety; and (d) the severity of anxiety symptoms was negatively correlated with the quality of life.

Discussion and conclusions

This study suggests that anxiety may be associated with relevant clinical variables in the broad spectrum of gambling activity. Therefore, proper management of anxiety symptoms might improve the clinical presentation of gamblers in different areas.

Open access