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  • Author or Editor: E. Molnár x
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We can describe higher-dimensional classical spaces by analytical projective geometry, if we embed the d-dimensional real space onto a d + 1-dimensional real projective metric vector space. This method allows an approach to Euclidean, hyperbolic, spherical and other geometries uniformly [8]. To visualize d-dimensional solids, it is customary to make axonometric projection of them. In our opinion the central projection gives more information about these objects, and it contains the axonometric projection as well, if the central figure is an ideal point or an s-dimensional subspace at infinity. We suggest a general method which can project solids into any picture plane (space) from any central figure, complementary to the projection plane (space). Opposite to most of the other algorithms in the literature, our algorithm projects higher-dimensional solids directly into the two-dimensional picture plane (especially into the computer screen), it does not use the three-dimensional space for intermediate step. Our algorithm provides a general, so-called lexicographic visibility criterion in Definition and Theorem 3.4, so it determines an extended visibility of the d-dimensional solids by describing the edge framework of the two-dimensional surface in front of us. In addition we can move the central figure and the image plane of the projection, so we can simulate the moving position of the observer at fixed objects on the computer screen (see first our figures in reverse order).

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The aim of this study is to present a situation assessment within the framework of a comprehensive study of the social services for people with mental illness in Hungary. After setting the historical background, we describe in detail the current services, their anomalies, and the ongoing implementation of a strategy to deinstitutionalize them.

Materials and methods

We reviewed the related academic literature and systematically collected and elaborated upon legal documents, decisions, and data from national databases.


We established that a paradigm shift is taking place in the social care of people with mental disorders in Hungary. The lack of human resources, the paternalistic, institution-centered attitude, the mass supply of social services in dilapidated buildings, and the stigmatization of patients are among the greatest problems. Cooperation between the health and social sectors is inadequate and, in the interests of patients, needs to be improved.


Hungary needs a complex, integrated, health-and-social-care supply system for people living with mental illness, one that takes into account both personal needs and assistance to recovery. In the continuation of the deinstitutionalization process, emphasis should be placed on social sensitization.

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Detailed investigations were carried out to study the distribution of trace and minor elements in different parts (fruit, seed and rib, peduncle, stem, leaf, root) of ripe Hungarian spice paprika plants. Two varieties of paprika plants were analyzed for their Cl, Co, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sc, V and Zn content by non-destructive neutron activation analysis. The results showed that the iron contents of the samples were much higher than those of the other trace elements. For the trace elements Co, Fe, Mn, Sc, V and Zn a considerable enrichment was observed in the leaf, while the Rb and K, Na, Mg showed accumulation mainly in the peduncle. In the other parts (fruit, seed and rib, stem) of the paprika plants no significant enrichment of trace elements was found. Since some of the elements investigated may have been partially eluted during the cleaning of the roots with distilled water and, on the other hand, if the cleaning was not intensive enough, some soil particles could be retained on the samples, the data obtained for the roots should be considered with precaution.

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