Yeasts of the Yarrowia clade frequently occur in meat and milk products. In many cases they cause spoilage due to their strong lipolytic and proteolytic activity, and their ability to produce brown pigments. Using conventional methods, some of these yeasts can be misidentified as Yarrowia lipolytica, but using molecular biological methods it can be stated that they are members of a complex group including several different species. The aims of this study were to find a proper method to collect Yarrowia strains from raw meat, and to assign them to groups based on their physiological and molecular characteristics, followed by sequence-based identification of the selected members of each group to determine the composition of the species. This study revealed three novel Yarrowia species. From 62 samples of different raw meats 291 yeast strains were isolated, from which 118 strains proved to be members of the Yarrowia group. They could be assigned to seven species. Four of them are described species, three of them are novel ones.
investigations were made on the relationship between plant density and plant height, and on the yield, thousand seed mass, and ratio of diseased and broken seeds of varieties with different seed sizes. Experiments were carried out to analyse the effects of potassium on the yield, bacterial diseases and nutritive quality of the seed of bean varieties. Three dry bean cultivars representing the small, medium and large seed size groups were investigated. Six plant density treatments were chosen based on theoretical seed norms, taking the germinative value of the seeds into consideration. The correlation between plant density and yield average showed that the volume of yield increased for varieties with large and medium-sized seeds up to a plant density of 285-400 thousand/ha, after which it declined. On the basis of the results, yield averages at plant densities of 285-334 thousand plants/ha were 0.17 t/ha higher than those achieved at low density (200 thousand plants/ha). At greater plant density the plant height increased in the case of large-seeded varieties and there was a considerable decrease in the thousand seed mass. With an adequate water supply a high level of potassium decreased the number of pods and seeds per plant compared with the basic level, which gave a yield of 2.5 t/ha. The use of high rates of potassium fertilizer decreased the number of infected seeds, but the differences were only significant for the small-seeded variety. A moderately high potassium level was advantageous for food quality, particularly during drought.
This paper reports on the results obtained with the pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (P-NMR) technique applied for determining fat content in fresh meat. The interfering moisture content of meat was removed by microwave drying and the dried residue was quantitatively transferred into the P-NMR tubes. The total analysis time was about 50 min. Experiments were performed with rendered pure pork, beef and goose fats, sunflower oil and with lean pork - fat and lean beef - tallow mixtures (batters). The regression (prediction) equations (intensity of P-NMR signal vs. fat content determined with the Soxhlet reference method) of the sunflower oil and fat samples did not differ appreciably. Consequently, contrary to the results obtained with the CW-NMR technique, the variability of the fatty acid composition of the examined fats and oil had no substantial effect on the regression (prediction) equations in this case. On the other hand, there was a considerable difference between the regression lines of the lean pork-fat and lean beef-tallow mixtures. Therefore, due to the interfering effect of the non-fat dry matter and the type of meat on the intensity of P-NMR signal, this technique can only have a restricted practical application in the in-line process control of fat content of meats.
The use of genetic markers allows the study of polymorphism and genetic distances between maize lines in greater depth than can be achieved on the basis of phenotype and DUS traits. The analysis of polymorphism between 46 maize inbred lines with known genetic background and the classification of these lines in related groups was carried out by means of morphological description, isoenzyme analysis, RAPD analysis, and identification using gene-linked microsatellite (SSR) markers. The genetic distance or degree of relationship between the lines was determined using cluster analysis. Only a very limited extent of allele polymorphism could be detected in isoenzyme analyses; the 46 lines formed only 18 gel electrophoresis groups. Nevertheless, on the basis of RAPD and SSR markers, all the lines could be distinguished from each other. This was reflected by the PIC (polymorphism index content) values, which ranged from 0.04 to 0.55 (mean 0.27) for the various enzyme loci, while far higher values were obtained for RAPD and SSR markers (0.20–0.91, mean 0.61, and 0.54–0.90, mean 0.73, respectively). Due to the large number of lines, two lines, derived from each other or from common parents, were chosen from each related group as the basis for grouping the lines according to genetic background. It was found that, while the individual marker systems only partially reflected the actual relationships between the lines, a joint processing of the genetic markers, supplemented with morphological data, revealed a close correlation between the groups formed on the dendrogram and the genetic background.
The optimum condition for setting the single channel analyzer /SCA/ has been studied with respect to the time required for data acquisition in Mössbauer spectroscopy. It has been found that, regardless what the peak height to background ratio may be, for most practical purposes the best point to cut off the constant background is where the intensity of the Mössbauer peak drops to about 20% of its full height.
Ecdlysichlamys transylvanica sp. nov. is described and its relations discussed based on microscopic observations and physioloical analises made on natural materials and laboratory static and batch cultures. In laboratory conditions it develops typical feature in biphasic medium, however it grows well in other usual artifical media, too (e.g. Benecke, Witsch, Knop-Pringscheim, Knop-Pringscheim-Felföldy, Kuhl-Lorenzen), in which is reveals many characteristic morphoses (pleomorphism).
Authors:Eleonóra Fodor, E. Dósa, Á. Nagy, E. Nagy, and L. Ferenczy
In the present study, 16 women with recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (RVVC) due to Candida albicans and Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata were followed for a period of 4 to 12 months, and 36 vaginal isolates were evaluted by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Eleven women were infected by C. albicans and5 by C. glabrata.Three electrophoretic karyotypes of C. albicans and 3 of C. glabrata were identified throughout the follow-up. All patients but one was infected with the same karyotype of C. albicans or C. glabrata during the follow-up period.Two different karyotypes of C. glabrata were identified in one patient in the course of 12 months. The results confirmed the diversity of the karyotypes of C. albicans and C. glabrata causing vulvovaginitis and demonstrated the persistence of colonization with the same strain over different periods of time despite therapy (15/16 women).
The analysis of polymorphism between 46 maize inbred lines with known genetic background and the classification of these lines in related groups was carried out by means of morphological, isoenzyme and genetic markers. The degree of relationship between the lines was determined using cluster analysis. Only a very limited extent of allele polymorphism could be detected in isoenzyme analyses. Nevertheless, on the basis of RAPD and SSR markers, all the lines could be distinguished from each other. Grouping lines into related groups it was found that, while the individual marker systems only partially reflected the actual relationships, a joint analysis of genetic markers and morphological data revealed a close correlation between the groups formed on the dendrogram and genetic backgrounds.