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  • Author or Editor: E. Széll x
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Four maize hybrids bred at the Cereal Research Non-Profit Company in Szeged were registered at the National Institute for Agricultural Quality Control (OMMI) during the period 2001-2004. The registration of five Szeged hybrids is expected on the territory of the European Union in 2005-2006. The hybrids are accompanied by specific production technological guides for commercial production based on the results of agronomy trials, so that the genetic potential of the hybrids can be utilised in practical farming to the highest possible extent. The specific agronomic traits of hybrids with different vegetation periods and genotypes are investigated. If a maize hybrid is to be recommended to farmers, it is necessary to know not only its yield potential, but also its yield stability. For this reason, investigations are also made on the effect of soil and climate on the grain yield potential of each hybrid individually.

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The Duo-System technology, which is basically a combination of the Focus Ultra herbicide and cycloxydim-tolerant maize hybrids, is spreading as a tool for weed control in maize crops. The Cereal Research Non-Profit Co. Ltd. commenced the breeding of cycloxydim-tolerant maize (CTM) hybrids based on know-how from BASF. CTM hybrids were created by crossing the CTM inbred lines developed in the initial phase of the programme. The herbicide tolerance of the hybrids was tested in dose rate trials with Focus Ultra in 2008 and 2009. The agronomic value of the novel CTM hybrids was tested in performance trials in 2009. CTM hybrids with high yield potential have been selected as a result of the breeding programme.

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Western corn rootworm (WCR) first appeared in Europe near Belgrade airport in 1992. The first adult of this species was found near Mórahalom, in the southern part of Hungary, on 30th June 1995. Small-plot trials were started in Szeged (Cereal Research Non-Profit Co.) and large-scale trials in Mezohegyes (Ménesbirtok Ltd.) in 1996 to elaborate strategies to control this insect pest. To make the work more efficient, eight experts working at different institutions formed a team. At the same time, monitoring was begun on when and where the insect appeared and in what numbers. The experiments were adapted to the life cycle of the species. WCR has one generation per year, laying eggs that overwinter. Larvae begin to hatch in late May to mid-June. Adults emerge by mid-July and survive till early October. They lay eggs in abundance from mid-July to late August.  Trials were conducted to control WCR both with and without chemicals. For adult control pesticides were sprayed from an aircraft or using a field sprayer. Larval control involved seed treatment with insecticide or the use of soil insecticide at planting or at cultivation.

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The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, is a new pest of corn in Europe. Future management may include the use of natural enemies. Our study focused on the deter­mi­na­tion of density and species composition of spiders in corn fields, as well as in the adjacent corn field margins, during the peak flight period of WCR adults. An additional objective was to test different sampling methods, used for spider collecting, in corn fields and in adjacent corn field margins. The field study was conducted in July and August, 1999, in experimental corn plots, as well as in the adjacent field margins, owned by the Cereal Research Institute, Szeged, in Southern Hungary. Spiders were collected by individual plant search and by sweep nets. Number of spiders /m2 was significantly higher, whereas /m3 was significantly lower in the corn plots compared to the adjacent field margins. Remnants of WCR adults were found in theridiid [Theridion impressum L. Koch, T. pictum (Walckenaer), Enoplognatha latimana Hippa and Oksala] and agelenid (Agelena sp.) webs. We observed that individuals of both families were able to kill 1-5 adult beetles within 90 minutes.

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