On discute des exigences analytiques pour la technologie de fabrication et des résultats de l'analyse dans la masse, à la
surface et dans des couches superficielles de silicium et d'arséniure de gallium semi-conducteurs.
Socio-economic analyses appeared among the research subjects of the Central Food Research Institute for the first time in 1982 with reference to the institutional reorganization. In addition to the earlier issues supported by economic calculations, activities of the unit involved in food economics had been more and more featured by turning to topics serving for quality products manufacture (implementation of quality management systems, labelling, the population’s food consumption etc.), as well as by joining the research work of the associated departments making their activities more complex. Also the socioeconomic regime change in 1989 made substantial impact on the activities performed at the unit. For the time being, consumer scientific studies provide main direction of the research with special regard to consumer perception of food safety risks and food safety risk communication.Possibilities for dynamic development in the pioneered way seem to be sure with reflection to healthy nutrition as well as environmental and ethical issues.
We have investigated the relationship between the quality parameters, the chlorophyll content and the leaf area index of three different winter wheat genotypes in two different crop years on chernozem soil. The correlations between the qualitative traits and physiological parameters were medium or tight in several cases. The obtained data suggest that the chlorophyll content, the size of the leaf area and the decrease of the assimilation capacity during the generative phase influence the qualitative parameters. Among the qualitative values the valorigraphic value performed lesser correlation between the studied physiological traits. The wet gluten content and the protein content of the flour showed very tight correlation with the chlorophyll content and the leaf area index. The correlations between the studied parameters were the strongest during flowering in the majority of the cases, thus their analysis during these phenophases results in better predictability. These results show that the extent of the assimilation capacity — which significantly influences the nutritional value of the grain during maturation — can be determined by analyzing all the data measured during the different phenophases.
The relationship between the yield, chlorophyll content and leaf area index of five winter wheat genotypes was investigated in two different growing seasons on chernozem soil. The results suggest that the genotype and the nutrient supply had a considerable influence on both the yield and the physiological traits, while the growing season modified the parameters in a significant manner. The results proved that the chlorophyll content and leaf area index had a direct influence on the yield; varieties developing larger leaf area and leaf chlorophyll content had higher yields even in different seasons, but the yield was significantly influenced by the decline in the chlorophyll content after flowering. It could be concluded that studying the chlorophyll content and leaf area values simultaneously during the more important phenological phases (especially from flowering to the early period of grain-filling) makes it possible to predict the yield from the trends.
Mycotoxins are natural compounds that may cause various adverse toxicological manifestations in humans and animals. The nature, the severity and scope of their adverse activity are varied and in general, even in small amount they have potent carcinogenic, genotoxic effect and injure the immune system. In order to provide high level of health protection for consumers, the European Union has established strict regulatory limits, whose implementation is enforced.The EC (2001) Commission Regulation sets maximum levels for some mycotoxins in foodstuffs: for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins, T-2 and HT-2 toxins. Particular product categories are regulated under specific decisions ordaining control of imported consignments at the point of entry. Due to the fact that only aflatoxins are addressed in the specific decisions, they are the mostly detected and notified mycotoxins in the EU Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF). The second most frequent group, Ochratoxin A is typically detected during internal EU market controls. Most RASFF notifications concern product categories falling under specific EU decisions, especially the Aflatoxin content of nuts and nut products. Significant amount of aflatoxins can be found also in dried fruits, spices and herbs.The article reviews and analyses the data available in rapid alert system concerning mycotoxins notification, and evaluates the usefulness of this information for risk assessment. The value of RASFF system is unquestionable and it fulfils its intended function included in its name. The system is a significant source of valuable information, but for risk assessment purposes, other additional information is needed. It could be used most effectively for risk assessment, if it was to provide data on the ratio of all/tested/positive lots and if the authorities provided not only the positive results, but also the exact mycotoxins level of every analysed sample.
Apple is one of the most important fruit grown and consumed in the temperate climate region. About 2% of the European population suffers from several allergenic reactions after consumption. Presence of 7 members of Mal d 1 gene family occurring in some apples was examined by PCR. The Mal d 1.01 and 1.02 genes could be detected from 91% and 79% of apple cultivars, respectively, due to the high degree of conservative regions. The Mal d 1.04 gene has 4 functional varieties and 2 pseudo-alleles, so it is highly variable. The PCR amplifi cation with Mal d 1.06 primers gave one or two fragments with different sizes. The electrophoretic pattern is a suitable means to select apple cultivars according to their low, medium, or high Mal d 1 allergen content. Florina apple showed the single 154 bp allele, which is responsible for the small Mal d 1 allergen content in homozygote form..
Several samples gave weak signal or did not give any fragment-band on the gel, so Mal d 1.07 and 1.08 genes might have more varieties. Regarding the Mal d 1.09 gene we have found that it has conservative sequences in different apple cultivars and does not have too many varieties.
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