The application of particle acclerators in industrial research is reviewed. An R and D mechanism of nuclear analytical research
is suggested to illustrate the driving force that doubles in a couple of years the number of publications almost in every
branch of nuclear analytical methods. After a general discussion of particle interactions, the various methods of activation
analysis and prompt nuclear methods and their applications are shown.
Soil biological properties and CO
emission were compared in undisturbed grass and regularly disked rows of a peach plantation. Higher nutrient content and biological activity were found in the undisturbed, grass-covered rows. Significantly higher CO
fluxes were measured in this treatment at almost all the measurement times, in all the soil water content ranges, except the one in which the volumetric soil water content was higher than 45%. The obtained results indicated that in addition to the favourable effect of soil tillage on soil aeration, regular soil disturbance reduces soil microbial activity and soil CO
Basic and applied research and development activities are reviewed in the field of application of nuclear methods in the Hungarian
aluminium industry, carried out in the last 25 years. The work surveyed is grouped according to tracer investigations on industrial
and laboratory scales, application of nuclear analytical methods and radioactive sources. A complete bibliography of the publications
A new quasi-geoid model for Hungary was determined by combining gravity data, GPS/levelling and vertical deflections. Reduction of the measurements was performed by using Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008) and Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) elevation data sets. Calculation method was Least Squares Collocation (LSC) with self-consistent planar logarithmic covariance model. In the computations the weights of GPS/levelling data were large, in this way normal heights obtained from levelling are consistent with GPS heights and with the quasi-geoid model. Astrogeodetic-gravimetric, pure astrogeodetic and pure gravimetric solutions have been calculated besides the combined solution to investigate the discrepancies among the different models. The combined quasi-geoid model fits to the GPS/levelling data with standard deviation of ±4.9 cm, nevertheless at some GPS/levelling sites large differences were indicated.
Ecdlysichlamys transylvanica sp. nov. is described and its relations discussed based on microscopic observations and physioloical analises made on natural materials and laboratory static and batch cultures. In laboratory conditions it develops typical feature in biphasic medium, however it grows well in other usual artifical media, too (e.g. Benecke, Witsch, Knop-Pringscheim, Knop-Pringscheim-Felföldy, Kuhl-Lorenzen), in which is reveals many characteristic morphoses (pleomorphism).
The radioactivities of 26 samples of mushrooms (22 species) have been determined. These samples originated primarily from the park forest near Pestszentlrinc (Hungary). Samples were taken from different parts of the Pestszentlrinc forest including samples from pine, oak and acacia. Measurements included radionuclides such as40K,134Cs,137Cs,110mAg, total-beta and90Sr. It was found that the uptake of cesium isotopes in mushrooms is higher than in green plants, and Macrolepiota species are especially suitable test organisms to detect the110mAg isotope.
Rat luteinizing hormone /LH/ was labelled with125I by the Chloramine T method.125I-LH, used as tracer in radioimmunoassay, was separated from the labelling reaction mixture by gel filtration. By using the proper protein/radioiodine ratio in the labelling reaction mixture the specific activity of125I-LH was adjusted to 2.5–20.5 MBq g–1. The influence of the specific activity on the assay parameters as well as on the tracer stability was investigated.
The associations between cancer mortality and median radon levels were examined in 34 Hungarian small villages (with population less than 5000) during the 1984-2000 period. The yearly averages of radon activity concentrations were measured in more than 70 homes in totally 5,081 houses in each village. There were no significant differences in the age distribution and the cancer mortality rate between the studied villages and all Hungarian villages with less than 5000 inhabitants. A previous cohort study in two neighboring villages in Hungary revealed a lower cancer incidence rate among women aged 30-64 in medium radon level (110-185 Bq . m-3). The aim of this study was checking the results of the previous study. Cancer mortality rate was examined in two groups: below and above the median value (110 Bq . m-3) of radon level. The lower or higher radon levels of homes do not result in significant differences concerning cancer mortality rate of males. However, the middle-aged group (30-64 years) of women had more lethal cancer cases in the lower radon level groups (59-109 Bq . m-3) than in the higher ones (110-226 Bq . m-3), the relative cancer risk was 1.3 (95% CI 1.1 to 1.6).
Volatile flavour substances were isolated from the minced pulp of half ripe and full ripe fruits of guava (Psidium guajava L.) cv. Lucknow-49 by simultaneous steam distillation extraction (SDE) with diethyl ether as extracting solvent. The concentrate was analysed by GC-MS. Acetic, butyric and hexanoic acids were the predominant acids, trans-2-hexenal and hexanal the predominant aldehydes and ethyl propanoate, methyl butyrate, ethyl butyrate, methyl hexanoate, ethyl hexanoate, cis-3-hexen-1-yl acetate, hexyl acetate, methyl benzoate, methyl octanoate, ethyl benzoate, phenylpropyl acetate and cinnamyl acetate, the esters responsible for the characteristic guava flavour were also present. The amount of total volatile substances was about 20% higher in full ripe fruits. The concentration of acids and most esters increased and that of C6 aldehydes decreased during ripening. The enzyme analysis showed that the polygalacturonase (PG) activity was lower in the ripe fruit, than in the half ripe one, while the β -galactosidase activity was not influenced by maturity stage. The surface and the cell walls of full ripe guava became wrinkled, and parenchyma cells were empty (SEM).