Neutron activation analysis (NAA), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE), atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and ion chromatography (IC) were used for the chemical characterization of airborne particulate matter in Santiago, Chile. The PM10 mass and elemental concentration were higher in the winter than in the summer collection period. Analytical quality assessment for NAA, XRF, PIXE, AAS and IC was performed on some samples. Correlations were found between the elements Pb–Br, Si–Ca–Fe, As–Cu–S and also between the fine mass and black carbon concentrations, which could be associated with some relevant sources.
The applicability of the INIS database for literature retrieval on nuclear-related analytical techniques [e.g. neutron activation analysis (NAA), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE)] has been studied. There exist about 9700 documents on NAA and other forms of activation analysis, about 3500 documents on XRF and about 1200 documents on PIXE in the database collected from 1976 until July 1988. They cover a variety of elements and matrices in the fields of biology, geochemistry and the physical sciences. Some technical notes and comments on the practical use of this database are also included.
The present paper describes radiochemical separation procedures developed for the determination of the elements As, Cr, Hg, Sb and Se in biological reference materials. The methods chosen utilize ion exchange, retention on inorganic exchangers and solvent extraction techniques for the isolation of the elements of interest. These procedures are more rapid than previously used methods, such as distillation and precipitation. As to the sample dissolution, the following procedures were tested using radioactive tracers and reference materials: treatment of the materials in teflon bombs with a mixture of HNO3+H2SO4 or HNO3 only in a normal oven, and with HNO3 in a microwave oven using specially designed digestion bombs.
During a five-year period, the International Atomic Energy Agency supported a Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) to investigate the quantitative relationship between internal body burdens of a number of elements of environmental health significance and their respective concentrations in hair. The use of nuclear-related analytical techniques, such as neutron activation analysis, X-ray fluorescence, particle-induced X-ray emission and radiotracers, was emphasized. One aspect of the CRP focused on studies in man, using autopsy cases, of mineral distribution in five tissues, i.e. liver, kidney, lung, brain and bone in addition to hair, and the elements of primary importance were As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Se and Zn. Emphasis was placed on analytical quality assurance. Hair and internal tissue samples were obtained from subjects from Bulgaria, China, the former German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Japan, Norway and Sweden.