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Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae-Sz1) enriched in chromium, iron, selenium or zinc was prepared by shaken cultivation and laboratory fermentation. Determination of the cellular distribution of microelements indicated that a considerable portion (68-88%) was bound to the cell constituents, a very little part was solved only in the cytosol and vacuole. More than half of the original vitamins B content has been lost during the general guarantee time (12 months) and the microelements had only little influence on it. Enrichment of yeast cells with iron was accompanied by considerable increase in vitamin B2

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Differential scanning calorimetry has been applied to study the interaction of fibrous or of soluble elastin with fatty acids and their trialanine derivatives. The DSC curves of elastin-fatty acid preparations exhibited an endothermic transition in the temperature range - 10° to + 50°. The peak temperatures and the enthalpy changes were independent of the chain length and of the saturation of the fatty acid. The interaction with the trialanine derivatives was similar to that with the fatty acids.

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Abstract  

The tetra-alkyl-ammonium halides are electrolytes that have special characteristics due to the presence of hydrocarbon chains. They have been used asmodel compounds to study hydrophobic interactions due to their fairly large solubility in water and because of the possibility of change in the length and geometry of the alkyl chains. In this work the solution enthalpies of tetra-n-butyl-ammonium bromide, tetra-sec-butyl ammonium bromide, tetra-iso-butyl-ammonium bromide and di-n-butyl-di-sec-butyl ammonium bromide were determined at 298.15 K at concentrations between 0.001 and 0.01 mol kg−1. The experimental method used was isoperibol calorimetry. The results were extrapolated fitting the experimental data by least squares to obtain the solution enthalpies at infinite dilution. The hydrocarbon chains studied were so chosen because the tetra-n-butyl-ammonium ion is considered to be a structure maker for water. The results show that the geometry of the ion and of the hydrocarbon chains play an important role in the behavior properties of the solutions.

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Periodica Mathematica Hungarica
Authors:
E. Durszt
,
J. Németh
, and
A. Varga

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In the research area of healthier meat products a possible trend is to replace high energy density fat in formulations with substances providing less energy than fat. The aim of the producers is to obtain a product having maximum yield with similar or same organoleptic properties and structure like well-known full-fat analogues. Properties of high fat products can be restored with the use of different fat substitutes, non-meat protein, and/or hydrocolloids or starch, owing to their stabilization abilities, fat coating, and water binding, respectively. The review is aimed to summarize the effect of different fat substitutes on the processing quality, textural characteristics, and sensory properties of comminuted meat products with low lipid content.

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Abstract  

The determination of lead via 30 MeV4He bombardment to produce the long-lived radioisotope210Po was studied. The validity of the technique was tested by the analysis of a series of NBS glass samples doped with 61 different trace elements at nominal 500 to 1 ppm level concentrations. The measurement sensitivity of alpha counting with surface barrier detectors was evaluated. The detection limit was estimated at 0.1 ppm. The4He-activation technique coupled with -counting features a unique combination of sensitivity and accuracy for the trace determination of lead.

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Abstract  

A new approach for the characterization of coatings with respect to their corrosion protection is presented. The applicability of a simple in situ radiotracer method and some information which can be gained from sorption measurement of corrosive ions are demonstrated based on the results obtained in case of HSO4 /SO4 2– accumulation on a coating chosen. The technique used has low detection limit and the measurements can be performed without disturbing the primary experimental conditions.

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Numerous Fusarium species have been associated with the Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease of wheat, barley and other small-grain cereals, reducing worldwide cereal crop yields and, as a consequence of their mycotoxin production in the cereal grain, having an impact on both human and animal health.The year 2010 was extremely favourable for Fusarium head blight pathogens. Over a hundred symptomatic wheat heads were collected from various locations in Hungary. The aim was to determine the diversity of the Fusarium species infecting winter wheat ears. A total of 86 Fusarium spp. were morphologically identified from diseased kernels. F. sambucinum was found to be present in two of the Martonvásár samples. This pathogen had only previously been detected extremely sporadically. The species F. culmorum and F. verticillioides were found at a much lower rate than expected, while none of the isolates were identified as F. poae. On the basis of the results, 95% of the isolates belonged to the Fusarium graminearum species complex.

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Acta Agronomica Hungarica
Authors:
Z. Varga-Haszonits
,
E. Enzsölné Gerencsér
,
Z. Lantos
, and
Z. Varga

The temporal and spatial variability of soil moisture, evapotranspiration and water use were investigated for winter barley. Evaluations were carried out on a database containing meteorological and yield data from 15 stations. The spatial distribution of soil moisture, evapotranspiration and water use efficiency (WUE) was evaluated from 1951 to 2000 and the moisture conditions during the growth period of winter barley were investigated. The water supply was found to be favourable, since the average values of soil moisture remained above the lower limit of favourable water content throughout the growth period, except for September–December and May–June. The actual evapotranspiration tended to be close to the potential evapotranspiration, so the water supplies were favourable throughout the vegetation period. The calculated values of WUE showed an increasing trend from 1960 to 1990, but the lower level of agricultural inputs caused a decline after 1990. The average values of WUE varied between 0.87 and 1.09 g/kg in different counties, with higher values in the northern part of the Great Hungarian Plain. The potential yield of winter barley can be calculated from the maximum value of WUE. Except in the cooler northern and western parts of the country, the potential yield of winter barley, based on the water supply, could exceed 10 t/ha.

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