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  • Author or Editor: E. Yılmaz x
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Abstract

This study aimed to prepare water-in-oil-type gelled protein emulsions. Sorghum, chickpea, and barley proteins were extracted from the seed flours with an alkaline procedure, and 2% protein solutions were used as an aqueous phase with Span 20 emulsifier to create sunflower oil emulsion gels. Prepared gels were analysed for main physicochemical properties, polymorphism, and rheology. Results showed that stable emulsion gels were creamy-greenish in colour and had mechanical stability. They included β and β′ type fat crystals. Rheological analyses indicated that they were soft-gel-like preparates, having certain levels of structural recovery ability after shear. These emulsion gels could be spreadable-fat-like products or shortening alternatives in processed foods. They might provide an extra advantage due to plant protein content. Food application studies are anticipated in future studies.

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Abstract

This study aimed to develop and characterise emulgels based on aqueous γ-cyclodextrin metal-organic framework (γ-CD-MOF) solutions with sunflower oil in the presence of Tween 20, 40, and 60 emulsifiers. The main physical, structural, and rheological properties of γ-CD-MOF emulgels were investigated. The emulgels prepared with 5% and 10% γ-CD-MOF were durable. The X-ray diffraction patterns proved the existence of β polymorph type lipid crystals. The rheological analyses showed that the gel strength increased with increased γ-CD-MOF concentration, and thixotropic behaviour was observed depending on the gel strength at 10 °C. In addition, the samples were heat resistant proved by rheological temperature ramp tests. Finally, addition of the emulsifiers did not cause any change in the centrifuge stability and colour properties of the emulgels. These samples could be used to prepare different emulsion type food products.

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Abstract  

In this study, the zeolitic tuffs having clinoptilolite obtained from Bigadic region of western of Anatolia, Turkey were investigated as regards to whether it is possible to be transformed into amorphous phase from them. At first, the zeolite tuffs rich in clinoptilolite were characterized using XRD, DTA, TG, DSC, and FTIR standard methods. All the samples were heated at 110 °C for 2 h and then were expanded within 5 min between the temperatures 1200 and 1400 °C. In addition, porosity and density were determined. The resistance values of all the samples were measured in acidic and basic media. These samples were also analyzed. As a result of this study, zeolitic tuffs in clinoptilolite were transformed into amorphous phase, and especially in chemical industry were found convenient.

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Producing forage maize ( Zea mays L.) in twin-row planting pattern has been attempted in past years. This research was performed to determine effects of planting patterns and densities on yields of forage maize hybrids. We also examined other plant characteristics associated with forage yield under second crop conditions in Hatay, East Mediterranean region of Turkey, during 2003 and 2004. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design in a split-split-plot arrangement with three replications. The planting patterns of twin row (55:20 cm), conventional row (75 cm) and narrow row (50 cm) were main plots, the plant densities (80,000, 100,000 and 120,000 plants ha −1 ) were split-plots, and the hybrids (PR-1550, MAVERIK and DK-585) were split-split plots. Forage and dry matter yields were significantly affected by planting patterns, plant densities and maize hybrids. Our results revealed the advantage of twin-row planting pattern over conventional and narrow row plantings at all plant densities. Twin row planting out-yielded conventional row (16% more forage and 10.2% more dry matter yield) and narrow-row (7.9% more forage and 5.9% more dry matter yield) plantings. Twin-row planting pattern may be a profitable production technique for forage maize producers.

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Abstract  

The water adsorption properties of sepiolite having dolomite supplied from Eskisehir region and their exchanged forms (K+, Na+, Mg2+ and Ca2+) were investigated. The sepiolite samples were characterized using XRD, TG-DTA, DSC and nitrogen adsorption methods. The temperature ranges were determined for the dehydrations of hydroscopic and zeolitic water as 30–200°C, for the dehydration of the bound water as 250–750°C and for the dehydroxylation of hydroxyls as 810–850°C in the sample. It was observed that the value of percent mass loss for natural and modified samples varied in the range from 36.70 to 39.05%. Two mass loss steps for all samples were observed using a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in the range of 30–550°C. Adsorption isotherms for water on natural and modified forms were obtained at pressures up to 2.39 kPa. Uptake of water increased as K-SEP.<Na-SEP.<Mg-SEP.<Ca-SEP. for sepiolite samples at 293 K.

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Abstract  

Linezolid is the first of new class of antibiotics, the oxazolidinones, and exhibits activity against many gram-positive organisms, including vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Aim of the study: Linezolid was to label with I-131 and potential of the radiolabeled antibiotic was to investigate in inflamed rats with Saureus (S. aureus) and sterile inflamed rats with turpentine oil. Linezolid was labeled with I-131 by iodogen method. Biodistribution of [131I]linezolid was carried out in bacterial inflamed and sterile inflamed rats. Radiolabeling yield of [131I]linezolid was determined as 85 ± 1% at pH 2. After injecting of [131I]linezolid into bacterial inflamed and sterile inflamed rats, radiolabeled linezolid was rapidly removed from the circulation via the kidneys. Binding of [131I]linezolid to bacterial inflamed muscle (T/NT = 77.48 at 30 min) was five times higher than binding to sterile inflamed muscle (T/NT = 14.87 at 30 min) of rats. [131I]linezolid showed good localization in bacterial inflamed tissue. It was demonstrated that [131I]linezolid can be used to detect S. aureus inflammation in rats.

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Abstract  

The aim of this study was to determine whether [131I]apigenin is a powerful and discrimination infection from inflammation for scintigraphic imaging. The study was carried out in inflamed rats with Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and sterile inflamed rats with turpentine oil. Biodistribution study of [131I]apigenin was performed in the rats. Apigenin was labeled with 131I by iodogen method. Obtained [131I]apigenin with high yield (98%) was injected i.v. to both group rats. The results were expressed as the percent uptake of injected dose per gram of organ (%ID/g), the bacterial infected and sterile inflamed muscles. Binding of [131I]apigenin to the infected thigh muscle (target muscle = T) and normal thigh muscle (non-target muscle = NT) ratio (T/NT = 4.51 at 15 min) was higher than binding to bacterial inflamed muscle (T/NT = 2.25 at 15 min) of rats. [131I]apigenin showed good localization in both inflamed tissues. This uptake in the sterile inflamed tissue is higher than bacterial infected tissue. [131I]apigenin might be useful for imaging of inflamed tissues. However, it is not discriminate sterile inflamed tissue from bacterial infected tissue.

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A precise and sensitive reversed phase high-performance thin-layer chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the determination of nilotinib (NTB) in spiked plasma, urine, and pharmaceutical capsule formulation. The method was based on derivatization NTB with 4-chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan (NBD-Cl) in the borax buffer (pH 9). The method employs an isocratic elution using acetonitrile and 10 mM orthophosphoric acid (40:60 v/v) as a mobile phase and an C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm, Waters Symmetry), with a fluorescence detector (λ ex: 447 nm, λ em: 530 nm). The method validation was performed with respect to linearity, recovery, accuracy, precision, and stability. The linear ranges were 100–600 ng mL−1 in standard solution, plasma, and urine. Correlation coefficients (r 2) were higher than 0.9997 for all of the analytes, indicating good linear relationship. The percentage recovery was 87.89% for plasma, 95.35% for urine, and 96.07% for capsules.

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