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Transfer of six thin-layer chromatography (TLC) Global Pharma Health Fund Minilab kit protocols for detecting fake or markedly substandard drugs in pharmaceutical products in the field to quantitative high-performance TLC (HPTLC)–densitometry methods was carried out using a model process published earlier. The developed and validated methods for tablets or capsules containing cefixime, cefuroxime axetil, cephalexin·H2O, ciprofloxacin HCl, levofloxacin, and metronidazole involved use of EMD Millipore Premium Purity silica gel 60 F254 plates, automated sample and standard solution application with a CAMAG Linomat 4, and automated densitometry with a CAMAG Scanner 3 for detection, identification, and quantification.

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Abstract  

A novel macroporous silica-based 2,6-bis(5,6-diisobutyl-1,2,4-triazine-3-yl)pyridine (iso-Bu-BTP), a neutral chelating agent having several softatom nitrogen, polymeric composite (iso-Bu-BTP/SiO2-P) was synthesized. It was done through impregnation and immobilization of iso-Bu-BTP molecule into the pores of SiO2-P particles with 40–60 μm of bead diameter and 0.6 μm of mean pore size. The effective impregnation resulted from the intermolecular interaction of iso-Bu-BTP and co-polymer inside the SiO2-P particles by a vacuum sucking technique. To understand the possibility of applying iso-Bu-BTP in the MAREC process developed, the adsorption behavior of a few representative rare earths (REs) such as Ce(III), Nd(III), Gd(III), Dy(III), Er(III), Yb(III), and Y(III) towards iso-Bu-BTP/SiO2-P was investigated at 298 K. The influence of the HNO3 concentration in a wide range of pH 5.52–3.0M and a few chelating agents such as formic acid, citric acid, and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) on the adsorption of RE(III) was examined. It was found that in the presence of chelating agent, the adsorption ability of the tested RE(III) towards iso-Bu-BTP/SiO2-P decreased due to two competition reactions of RE(III) with iso-Bu-BTP/SiO2-P and chelating agents. In a 0.01M HNO3 solution containing 1M formic acid or 1M citric acid, light RE(III) showed lower adsorption towards iso-Bu-BTP/SiO2-P than that of the heavy one. This makes the separation of light RE(III) from the heavy one possible. Based on the similarity of minor actinides and heavy RE(III) in chemical properties and the results of column separation experiments, chromatographic partitioning of light RE(III) from a simulated high level liquid waste solution composed of the heavy RE(III) and minor actinides in MAREC process is promising.

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The sub-acute toxicity of E. faecalis HZNU P2 was investigated in rats fed with different doses for 14 days. To evaluate the acute oral toxicity of E. faecalis HZNU P2, rats were fed with E. faecalis HZNU P2 at a high dose of 2×1011 CFU kg−1 for 10 days. Results showed that there were no abnormal clinical signs in any of the groups during the experiment. There were no significant differences in live weight gain among rats fed with E. faecalis HZNU P2, compared to those in control group. Macroscopic or microscopic examinations of organs revealed no abnormalities, indicating that E. faecalis HZNU P2 did not adversely affect the health of rats. Results of this study demonstrated that digestion of E. faecalis HZNU P2 in rats did not show any obvious signs of toxicity.

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Abstract  

A kind of ion-exchange membrane with strong acid and weak acid groups was prepared by radiation-induced grafting of acrylic acid (AA) and sodium styrene sulfonate (SSS) onto high-density polyethylene membrane (HDPE). The effect of additives such as sodium acetate, sodium chloride on grafting yield was studied. It was found that for either pre-irradiation method or simultaneous radiation method, the weak acid salt of strong alkali sodium acetate had a complex effect on the grafting yield by “pH effect” and “ion pair effect”, and the neutral salt sodium chloride was helpful to the increase of grafting yield by “ion pair effect”.

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Lipopolysaccharide and b-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) is a pattern recognition receptor that can recognize and bind LPS and b-1,3-glucan. LGBP has crucial roles in innate immune defense against Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. In this study, LGBP functions in Portunus trituberculatus innate immunity were analyzed. First, the mRNA expression of PtLGBP in hemocytes, hepatopancreas, and muscle toward three typical pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) stimulations were examined using real-time PCR. Results show that the overall trend of relative expressions of the LGBP gene in three tissues is consistent, showing up-down trend. In each group, the highest expression of the LGBP gene was at 3 and 12 h post-injection. The LGBP gene is also expressed significantly higher in the hemocytes and hepatopancreas than in the muscle. The highest level of LGBP was in the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and glucan-injected group, whereas the lowest level was in the PGN-injected group. Furthermore, bacterial agglutination assay with polyclonal antibody specifically for PtLGBP proved that the recombinant PtLGBP (designated as rPtLGBP) could exhibit obvious agglutination activity toward Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and V. alginolyticus; Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis; and fungi Saccharomyces cerevisiae. LGBP in Portunus trituberculatus possibly served as a multi-functional PRR. In addition, LGBP is not only involved in the immune response against Gram-negative and fungi, as manifested in other invertebrates, but also has a significant role in anti-Gram-positive bacteria infection.

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Gliadins were extracted from three wheat varieties, viz. Nongda 99260037 (good quality), Henan 9023 (media quality) and Nongda 98123 (poor quality), and α-, β-, γ-, ω -gliadins were purified from Nongda 99260037 using preparative SDS-PAGE. The total gliadins and α-, β-, γ-, ω -gliadins were used as antigens to immunise BALB/C mice, and the corresponding polyclonal antibodies were prepared, designated as Anti-A, Anti-B, Anti-C, Anti-A α , Anti-A β , Anti-A γ and Anti-A ω , respectively. Binding of the polyclonal antibodies with 8 varieties, that varied in quality properties, showed correlations with some wheat quality parameters. Correlation coefficients between antibodies against total gliadins or γ -, and ω -gliadin of Nongda 99260037 and quality parameters were higher than other antibodies. Of seven polyclonal antibodies tested, three (Anti-A γ , Anti-A ω and Anti-A) displayed significant positive or negative associations between antibody binding and dough development time, strength, valorimenter value and stability time, but no significant correlations were observed with water absorption. These results suggest that polyclonal antibodies could be used for rapid prediction and screening of wheat quality parameters.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: W. Hennig, W. Warburton, A. Fallu-Labruyere, K. Sabourov, M. Cooper, J. McIntyre, A. Gleyzer, M. Bean, E. Korpach, K. Ungar, W. Zhang, and P. Mekarski

Abstract  

Measurement of radioactive xenon in the atmosphere is one of several techniques to detect nuclear weapons testing. For high sensitivity, some existing systems use beta/gamma coincidence detection to suppress background, which is very effective, but increases complexity due to separate beta and gamma detectors that require careful calibration and gain matching. In this paper, we will describe the development and evaluation of a simpler detector system, named PhosWatch, consisting of a CsI(Tl)/BC-404 phoswich well detector, digital readout electronics, and pulse shape analysis algorithms implemented in a digital signal processor on the electronics, and compare its performance to existing multi-detector systems.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: H. Yu, Y. Yang, X.Y. Chen, G.X. Lin, J.Y. Sheng, J.Y. Nie, Q.J. Wang, E.J. Zhang, X.R. Yu, Z. Wang, and F. Xiong

The waxy wheat shows special starch quality due to high amylopectin content. However, little information is available concerning the development and degradation of amyloplast from waxy wheat endosperm. To address this problem, waxy wheat variety, Yangnuo 1, and a non-waxy wheat variety, Yangmai 13, were chosen to investigate the development and degradation of endosperm amyloplast during wheat caryopsis development and germination stage respectively using histochemical staining and light microscopy. Changes of morphology, the soluble sugar and total starch content were indistinguishable in the process of caryopsis development of two wheat varieties. The developing endosperm of non-waxy was stained blue-black by I2-KI while the endosperm of waxy wheat was stained reddish-brown, but the pericarp of waxy and non-waxy wheat was stained blue-black. In contrast to nonwaxy wheat, endosperm amyloplast of waxy wheat had better development status and higher proportion of small amyloplast. During seed germination many small dissolution pores appeared on the surface of endosperm amyloplast and the pores became bigger and deeper until amyloplast disintegrated. The rate of degradation of waxy wheat endosperm amyloplast was faster than non-waxy wheat. Our results may also be helpful to the use of waxy starch in food and nonfood industry.

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: E. McCloskey, A. Dey, R. Parr, N. Aras, A. Balogh, J. Bostock, A. Borell, S. Krishnan, G. Lobo, L. Qin, Y. Zhang, S. Cvijetic, V. Zaichick, M. Lim-Abraham, K. Bose, S. Wynchank, and G. Iyengar
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In this study, a new substitution line, 12-5-1, with 42 chromosomes that was derived from BC3F2 descendants of the hybridization between Triticum aestivum cv. CN19 and Aegilops biuncialis was created and reported. The 12-5-1 was immune to both powdery mildew and stripe rust and has stable fertility. Multi-color fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that 12-5-1 was a substitution line 1Mb(1B). The seed storage protein electrophoresis showed that 12-5-1 presented high molecular weight glutenin subunits (2 + 12) of CN19 and a new subunit designated as M which apparently originated from parent Ae. biuncialis, and absent 7 + 8 subunits. Additionally, the flour quality parameters showed that the protein content, Zeleny sedimentation value, wet gluten content, and grain hardness and mixing time of 12-5-1 were signifiantly higher than those of its parent CN19. Moreover, 5 pairs of the chromosome 1Mb-specifi polymerase chain reaction-based landmark unique gene markers, TNAC1021, TNAC1026, TNAC1041, TNAC1-02 and TNAC1-04, were also obtained. The new substitution line 1Mb(1B) 12-5-1 could be a valuable source for wheat improvement, especially for wheat end product quality and resistance to disease.

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