Finland has the operational capability to take airborne gamma-ray measurements in emergency situations. The original purpose of airborne radiation mapping in Finland was to identify hazardous areas containing radioactive fall-out after a nuclear accident or use of nuclear weapons. Regular exercises are held annually to keep the operational functionality at a high level. The achieved capability has been well demonstrated in international INEX-2-FIN 1997 and Barents Rescue 2001 exercises. The knowledge and competence achieved can easily be applied in international radiation monitoring campaigns designed to expose undeclared nuclear materials or other clandestine nuclear activities. The essential improvements in the detection system are linked to the ability to locate point-like radiation sources rather than large areas of fall-out. This paper describes the aerial gamma-ray measurement method and its usability for the detection of nuclear material production chains and trails of fission or activation products. The ability of airborne detection systems in revealing the use of undeclared nuclear materials has been tested. Various scenarios for exposing clandestine nuclear material production, enrichment and nuclear waste trails have been considered. Based on detection capability calculations and testing in practice, it was found that the detection of one un-shielded significant quantity of natural uranium (10 tons of yellow cake in storage barrels) is possible through the daughter products, using one single 6"'4" NaI detector on the airplane. The developed fixed wing gamma measurement technique is now able to detect significant amounts of nuclear material conveniently and cost-effectively. Large areas can be screened to identify suspicious sub-areas for more detailed ground-based inspection.
Authors:J.J. Del Vecchio, P.A. Hosick and E.L. Matthews
Sodium induced volume loading may alter pressor responses to physical stress, an early symptom of cardiovascular disease. Purpose: Study 1: Determine the time point where total blood volume and serum sodium were elevated following saline consumption. Study 2: Examine the BP response to isometric handgrip (HG) and the cold pressor test (CPT) following saline consumption. Methods: Study 1: Eight participants drank 423 mL of normal saline (sodium 154 mmol/L) and had blood draws every 30 min for 3 h. Study 2: Sixteen participants underwent two randomized data collection visits; a control and experimental visit 90 min following saline consumption. Participants underwent 2 min of isometric HG, post exercise ischemia (PEI), and CPT. Results: Study 1: Total blood volume (3.8 ± 3.0 Δ%) and serum sodium (3.5 ± 3.6 Δ%) were elevated (P < 0.05) by the 90 min time point. Study 2: There were no differences in mean arterial pressure (MAP) during HG (EXP: 17.4 ± 8.2 ΔmmHg; CON: 19.1 ± 6.0 ΔmmHg), PEI (EXP: 16.9 ± 11.7 ΔmmHg; CON: 16.9 ± 7.8 ΔmmHg), or the CPT (EXP: 20.3 ± 10.8 ΔmmHg; CON: 20.9 ± 11.7 ΔmmHg) between conditions (P > 0.05). MAP recovery from the CPT was slower following saline consumption (1 min recovery: EXP; 15.7 ± 7.9 ΔmmHg, CON; 12.3 ± 8.9 ΔmmHg, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Data showed no difference in cardiovascular responses during HG or the CPT between conditions. BP recovery was delayed by saline consumption following the CPT.
Authors:B. S. Yuldashev, U. S. Salikhbaev, A. A. Kist, R. I. Radyuk, D. S. Barber, H. D. Passell, J. D. Betsill, R. Matthews, E. D. Vdovina, L. I. Zhuk, V. P. Solodukhin, V. L. Poznyak, I. A. Vasiliev, V. M. Alekhina and A. A. Djuraev
This article presents the results of the investigation on radionuclide contamination, physical and chemical forms of plutonium in soil samples of various zones at the territory of the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site (SNTS), and the analysis of these results in connection with characteristics of the performed tests. There was revealed the character of various sites differing by concentration level, 239+240Pu to 241Am concentration ratios, presence forms, area distribution, and magnetic fractions of transuranic radionuclides.