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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: Sara Davoudabadi, Hossein Goudarzi, Mehdi Goudarzi, Abdollah Ardebili, Ebrahim Faghihloo, Javad Yasbolaghi Sharahi, and Ali Hashemi


In this study, we focused on the emergence of extensively drug-resistant (XDR), pandrug-resistant (PDR), and hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (hvKP) in Iran. During 2018 to 2020 a total of 52 K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from different clinical specimens. The hvKP isolates were identified by PCR amplification of virulence and capsular serotype-specific genes. Hypermucoviscous K. pneumoniae (hmKP) were identified by string test. Carbapenem-resistant hvKP (CR-hvKP), multidrug-resistant hvKP (MDR-hvKP), extensively drug-resistant hvKP (XDR-hvKP), and pandrug-resistant hvKP (PDR-hvKP) were determined by disc diffusion method, Carba-NP test and PCR method. XDR-hvKP isolates were typed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Among all K. pneumoniae isolates 14 (26.9%) were identified as hvKP and 78.6% (11/14) of them were hmKP however, none of the classic K. pneumoniae (cKP) isolates were hmKP. The predominant capsular serotype of hvKP was K2 (42.85%) followed by K1 (35.71%). The prevalence of MDR-hvKP, XDR-hvKP and PDR-hvKP isolates were 6 (42.9%), 5 (35.7%) and 1 (7.1%), respectively. ESBL production was found in 85.7% of hvKP isolates and most of them carried bla TEM gene (78.6%) and 6 isolates (42.9%) were CR-hvKP. Among hvKP isolates, 1 (7.1%), 2 (14.3%), 3 (21.4%), 8 (28.6%), and 11 (78.6%) carried bla NDM-6, bla OXA-48, bla CTX-M, bla SHV, and bla TEM genes, respectively. According to MLST analysis, 2, 1, 1, and 1 XDR-hvKP isolates belonged to ST15, ST377, ST442, and ST147, respectively. The occurrence of such isolates is deeply concerning due to the combination of hypervirulence and extensively drug-resistance or pandrug-resistance.

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