Authors:Kwang-Wook Kim, Kee-Chan Song, Eil-Hee Lee, and Jae-Hyng Yoo
A new static contactor was developed for solvent extraction using capillary phenomena induced among clearances formed within
a highly packed fiber bundle. Feeding two immiscible phases cocurrently into the fiber bundle generated a very large liquid-liquid
contact area for mass transfer within the fiber bundle without any flow turbulence or drop phenomena. In order to test the
characteristics and stability of the fiber bundle contactor, continuous extraction experiments were carried out using the
fiber bundle contactor with a TBP-uranyl ion-nitric acid system. The fiber bundle contactor had the same extraction performance
as that of an ideal batch extractor with good reproducibility due to the sufficient liquidliquid contact area generated by
the packed fiber bundle. A minimum residence time of the aqueous phase within the fiber bundle contactor was required for
the extraction system to reach an extraction equilibrium state. In the TBP-uranyl ion-nitric acid system, the residence time
was about 1.9 minutes. This contactor was confirmed to be effective enough to perform solvent extraction and to study the
extraction kinetics because of the stable and large static liquid-liquid contact area.
Authors:Jei-Kwon Moon, Ki-Wook Kim, Chong-Hun Jung, Yong-Gun Shul, and Eil-Hee Lee
Composite ion exchanger beads were prepared to remove the strontium and silver ions in acidic solution. Potassium titanate and nickelferrocyanate powder, which are acid resistant inorganic ion exchangers were synthesized and then mixed with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) binder to form a PAN-potassium titanate and a PAN-nickelferrocyanate composite ion exchanger beads. Spherical composite beads could be obtained by adjusting the viscosities of the composite dope in the range of 700–1000 cP. The composite beads porosities such as macropore volume and pore size were increased in proportion to the contents of PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) which was used as the porosity modifying chemical. The synthesized composite ion exchangers were evaluated on their adsorption characteristics for the Ag1 and Sr21 ion solutions of pH 2.
Authors:Dong-Yong Chung, Eun-Kyoung Choi, Eil-Hee Lee, and Kwang-Wook Kim
Complexes of UO22+, Ce3+ and Nd3+ (M) with acetohydroxamic acid (AHA or L) in an aqueous solution have been investigated by the pH-spectral titration method
at 25 °C in an aqueous medium of 1.0 M NaClO4 ionic strength. Cerium(III) and neodymium(III) form [ML]2+, [ML2]+, [ML3] complexes with acetohydroxamic acid, while in case of UO22+ form [UO2L]+, [UO2L2] complexes with acetohydroxamic acid. Data processing with SQUAD program calculates the best values for the stability constants
from pH-spectrophotometric titration data. The protonation constant obtained was pK1 = 9.15 ± 0.04 at 25 °C. The stability constants for acetohydroxamic acid with UO22+, Ce3+ and Nd3+ were β1 = 7.22 ± 0.011, β2 = 14.89 ± 0.018 for UO22+ and β1 = 5.05 ± 0.062, β2 = 10.60 ± 0.076, β3 = 16.23 ± 0.088 for Ce3+ and β1 = 5.90 ± 0.028, β2 = 12.22 ± 0.038, β3 = 18.58 ± 0.042 for Nd3+, respectively.
Authors:Eil-Hee Lee, Jae-Gwan Lim, Dong-Yong Chung, Han-Beom Yang, and Kwang-Wook Kim
The removal of Cs and Re (as a surrogate for Tc) by selective precipitation from the simulated fission products which were
co-dissolved with uranium during the oxidative dissolution of spent fuel in a Na2CO3–H2O2 solution was investigated in this study. The precipitations of Cs and Re were examined by introducing sodium tetraphenylborate
(NaTPB) and tetraphenylohosponium chloride (TPPCl), respectively. The precipitation of Cs by NaTPB and that of Re by TPPCl
each took place within 5 min, and an increase in temperature up to 50 °C and a stirring speed up to 1000 rpm hardly affected
their precipitation rates. The most important factor in the precipitation with NaTPB and TPPCl was found to be a pH of the
solution after precipitation. Since Mo tends to co-precipitate with Cs or Re at a lower pH, an effective precipitation with
NaTPB and TPPCl was done at pH of above 9 without the co-precipitation of Mo. More than 99% of Cs and Re were precipitated
when the initial concentration ratio of NaTPB to Cs was above 1 and when that of TPPCl to Re was above 1. The precipitation
of Cs and Re was never affected by the concentration of Na2CO3 and H2O2, even though they were raised up to 1.5 and 1.0 M, respectively. Precipitation yields of Cs and Re in a Na2CO3–H2O2 solution were found to be dependent on the concentration ratios of [NaTBP]/[Cs] and [TPPCl]/[Re].
Authors:Kwang-Wook Kim, In-Tae Park, Hwan-Seo Park, Eil-Hee Lee, and Eung-Ho Kim
A new two-step process was investigated to treat LiCl molten salt waste containing volatile radionuclides generated from an
electro-metallurgical processing (pyro-processing) of spent oxide fuels. First, the chemical form of the soluble LiCl waste
was transformed into a chloride-free and less soluble hydroxide compound by an electrochemical method, where an electrolytic
de-chlorination was performed without adding any chemical salt. Then, a gelation process of the chemical form-changed Li compound,
named gel-route stabilization/solidification (GRSS) system aimed to reduce the volatility of the radionuclides greatly, was
introduced to stabilize/solidify the hydroxide salt wastes. The application of the electrochemical dechlorination/transformation
process and the subsequent gel-route stabilization process to treat the soluble LiCl salt wastes was found to be effective.
Authors:Kwang-Wook Kim, Soo-Ho Kim, Kee-Chan Song, Eil-Hee Lee, and Jae-Hyung Yoo
In order to remove U, Tc, and Np, which are positioning materials or target nuclides for transmutation, from the high-level radioactive waste, conditions of co-extraction and sequential stripping of the nuclides were studied by using 30 vol.% TBP. On the basis of the experiments performed on each element of U, Tc, and Np, a combination of co-extraction of U, Tc, Np Tc stripping Np stripping U stripping was suggested. To enhance the Np extraction yield, the electrolytic oxidation of Np(V) was required at the co-extraction step. For the stripping of Tc 5M HNO3, of Np the electrolytic reduction of Np(VI) to Np(V), and of U 0.3M sodium carbonate were used. Phase ratios (O/A or A/O) were recommended to be of 2-3, for co-extraction and for stripping.
Authors:Kwang-Wook Kim, Eil-Hee Lee, In-Kyu Choi, Jae-Hyung Yoo, and Hyun-Soo Park
The electrochemical redox behavior of nitric acid was studied using a glassy carbon fiber column electrode system, and its reaction mechanism was suggested and confirmed in several ways. Electrochemical reactions in less than 2.0M nitric acid was not observed. However, in more than 2.0M nitric acid, the reduction of nitric acid to nitrous acid occurred and the reduction rate was slow so that the nitric acid solution had to be in contact with an electrode for a period of time long enough for an apparent reduction current of nitric acid to nitrous acid to be observed. The nitrous acid generated in more than 2.0M nitric acid was rapidly and easily reduced to nitric oxide by an autocatalytic reaction. Sulfamic acid was confirmed to be effective to destroy the nitrous acid. At least 0.05M sulfamic acid was necessary to scavenge the nitrous acid generated in 3.5M nitric acid.
Authors:Kwang-Wook Kim, Kee-Chan Song, Eil-Hee Lee, In-Kyu Choi, and Jae-Hyung Yoo
The change of Np oxidation state in nitric acid and the effect of nitrous acid on the oxidation state were analyzed by spectrophotometry, solvent extraction, and electrochemical methods. The Np extraction with 30 vol.% TBP was enhanced by the adjustment of the Np oxidation state using a glassy carbon fiber column electrode system. The knowledge of electrolytic behavior of nitric acid was important because the nitrous acid affecting the Np redox reaction was generated during the adjustment of the Np oxidation state. The Np solution used in this work consisted of Np(V) and Np(VI) but no Np(IV). The ratio of Np(V) in the range of 0.5M5.5 M nitric acid was 32%19%. The electrolytic oxidation of Np(V) to Np(VI) in the solution enhanced the Np extraction efficiency about five times higher than without electrolytic oxidation. It was confirmed that the nitrous acid in a concentration of less than about 10–5 M acted as a catalyst to accelerate the chemical oxidation reaction of Np(V) to Np(VI).
Authors:Dong-Yong Chung, Heui-Seung Seo, Jae-Won Lee, Han-Beom Yang, Eil-Hee Lee, and Kwang-Wook Kim
A feasibility and basic study to find a possibility to develop such a process for recovering U alone from spent fuel by using
the methods of an oxidative leaching and a precipitation of U in high alkaline carbonate media was newly suggested with the
characteristics of a highly enhanced proliferation-resistance and more environmental friendliness. This study has focused
on the examination of an oxidative leaching of uranium from SIMFUEL powders contained 16 elements (U, Ce, Gd, La, Nd, Pr,
Sm, Eu, Y, Mo, Pd, Ru, Zr, Ba, Sr, and Te) using a Na2CO3 solution with hydrogen peroxide. U3O8 was dissolved more rapidly than UO2 in a carbonate solution. However, in the presence of H2O2, we can find out that the leaching rates of the reduced SIMFUEL powder are faster than the oxidized SIMFUEL powder. In carbonate
solutions with hydrogen peroxide, uranium oxides were dissolved in the form of uranyl peroxo-carbonato complexes. UO2(O2)x(CO3)y2−2x−2y, where x/y has 1/2, 2/1.