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European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano, Alejandra Mendoza-Larios, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, José Francisco Pérez-Ochoa, Elizabeth Irasema Antuna-Salcido, Elizabeth Rábago-Sánchez and Oliver Liesenfeld

The presence of tissue cysts of Toxoplasma gondii has only poorly been investigated in autopsy series. We determined the presence of T. gondii cysts in a series of 51 autopsies in a public hospital using immunohistochemistry of brain and heart tissues. The association of tissue cysts with the general characteristics of the autopsy cases was also investigated.

Of the 51 cases studied, five (9.8%) were positive by immunohistochemistry for T. gondii cysts in the brain. None of the heart specimens was positive for T. gondii cysts. The presence of T. gondii cysts in brains did not vary with age, sex, birthplace, residence, education, occupation, or the presence of pathology in the brain. In contrast, multivariate analysis showed that the presence of T. gondii cysts was associated with undernourishment (OR = 33.90; 95% CI: 2.82–406.32; P = 0.005).

We demonstrated cerebral T. gondii cysts in an autopsy series in Durango City, Mexico. Results suggest that T. gondii can be more readily found in brain than in heart of infected individuals. This is the first report of an association between the presence of T. gondii in brains and undernourishment.

Open access
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Ada A. Sandoval-Carrillo, Fernando Vazquez-Alaniz, José M. Salas-Pacheco, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano and Elizabeth Irasema Antuna-Salcido

It is not clear whether infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) is associated with hypertensive disorders in pregnant women. Through a case-control study design, 146 women suffering from hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (cases) and 146 age-matched normotensive pregnant women (controls) were examined for the presence of anti-CMV IgG and IgM antibodies with enzyme-linked immunoassays. IgM seropositive samples were further assayed by enzyme-linked fluorescent assay (ELFA).

Anti-CMV IgG antibodies were found in 138 (94.5%) controls and in 136 (93.2%) cases (odds ratio [OR] = 0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.30–2.05; P = 0.62). High (>18 IU/ml) levels of anti-CMV IgG antibodies were found in 37.7% of the 138 seropositive controls and in 34.6% of the 136 seropositive cases (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.53–1.43; P = 0.59). Anti-CMV IgM antibodies were found in 1 (0.7%) of the controls but in none of the cases using ELFA (P = 1.0). Seropositivity to CMV was not associated with a previous preeclampsia and was similar among cases regardless their mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and mean arterial blood pressure.

No serological evidence of an association between CMV infection and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy was found. Further research to elucidate the role of CMV in hypertensive disorders in pregnancy should be conducted.

Open access
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano, Nadia Velázquez-Hernández, Fernando Martín Guerra-Infante, Marisela Aguilar-Durán, Alma Rosa Pérez-Álamos, Sergio Estrada-Martínez, José Antonio Navarrete-Flores, Ada Agustina Sandoval-Carrillo, Elizabeth Irasema Antuna-Salcido, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco and Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

Purpose: We aimed to determine the association between Chlamydia trachomatis infection and female sex work, and the association between sociodemographic, obstetric, and behavioral characteristics of female sex workers and C. trachomatis infection.

Methods: Through a case–control study design, we studied 201 female sex workers and 201 age-matched women without sex work in Durango City, Mexico. C. trachomatis DNA was detected in cervical swab samples using polymerase chain reaction.

Results: C. trachomatis DNA was detected in 32 (15.9%) of the 201 cases and in 6 (3.0%) of the 201 controls (odds ratio [OR] = 6.15; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.5–15.0; P < 0.001). The frequency of infection with C. trachomatis in female sex workers did not vary (P > 0.05) regardless of the history of pregnancies, deliveries, cesarean sections, or miscarriages. Regression analysis of the behavioral characteristics showed that infection with C. trachomatis was associated only with consumption of alcohol (OR = 2.39; 95% CI: 1.0–5.71; P = 0.04).

Conclusions: We conclude that C. trachomatis infection is associated with female sex work in Durango City, Mexico. This is the first age-matched case–control study on the prevalence of C. trachomatis infection in female sex workers in Mexico using detection of C. trachomatis DNA in cervical samples.

Open access
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
Authors: Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel, Luis Francisco Sánchez-Anguiano, Jesús Hernández-Tinoco, Alma Rosa Pérez-Álamos, Yazmin del Rosario Rico-Almochantaf, Sergio Estrada-Martínez, Raquel Vaquera-Enriquez, Arturo Díaz-Herrera, Agar Ramos-Nevarez, Ada Agustina Sandoval-Carrillo, José Manuel Salas-Pacheco, Sandra Margarita Cerrillo-Soto, Elizabeth Irasema Antuna-Salcido, Oliver Liesenfeld and Carlos Alberto Guido-Arreola

Infection with Toxoplasma gondii in brain may cause some symptoms that resemble those in women with premenstrual syndrome. To determine the association of T. gondii infection with symptoms and signs of premenstrual syndrome, we examined 489 women aged 30–40 years old. Sera of participants were analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies using enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA) and T. gondii DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 38 (7.8%) of the women studied. Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in 13 (34.2%) of the 38 IgG seropositive women. Logistic regression showed two variables associated with seropositivity to T. gondii: presence of diarrhea (odds ratio [OR] = 6.10; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.37–27.85; P = 0.01) and weight gain (OR = 2.89; 95% CI: 1.37–6.07; P = 0.005), and two variables associated with high (>150 IU/ml) levels of IgG against T. gondii: presence of diarrhea (OR = 7.40; 95% CI: 1.79–30.46; P = 0.006) and abdominal inflammation (OR = 3.38; 95% CI: 1.13–10.10; P = 0.02). Positivity to EIA IgG and PCR was positively associated with obesity and negatively associated with joint pain by bivariate analysis.

Our study for the first time reveals a potential association of T. gondii infection with clinical manifestations of premenstrual syndrome.

Open access