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  • Author or Editor: Elvira Pataki x
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A poiétés-grammatikos Philétas életéről rendkívül hézagosak az ismeretek. A tulajdonképpen egyetlen, kései szerzőktől származó, látszólag érdektelen információ szerint a költő állhatatos, éjt nappallá tévő munkája következtében rendkívül sovány volt s ez vezetett halálához is. Az anekdota a források egy csoportjában (Ailianos, Athénaios) bizarr motívummal bővül, amely szerint a leptoteros Philétas lábán ólomsúlyokat hordott, hogy a szél fel ne kapja. A jelző bizonyára nem függetleníthető a hellenisztikus irodalomkritika lepton fogalmától s a történet metapoetikus olvasatának lehetőségét veti fel. A dolgozat kiindulópontja egy szintén Ailianos nál olvasható zoológiai paradoxon, amely a szél ellen védekező, könnyű és muzikális, szorgosan gyűjtögető méhekkel kapcsolatban hasonló ellensúly motívumot hoz. Az ebből adódó implicit méh — költő megfeleltetés (amely tradicionális, szakrális konnotációjú metaforája a görög irodalomnak s meghatározó a hellenisztikus poétika képrendszerében is) több szempontból is illenék a Philétas- hagyományba. A periergos alkotót élénk természettudományos érdeklődés jellemzi, töredékei között több mézzel, méhhel kapcsolatos maradt fenn, s a melissa a legújabb rekonstrukció alapján fontos szerepet játszhatott a Démétér ben is. Ugyanezen típusú metapoetikus természeti képen alapulnak emellett a Philétas művészetével kapcsolatos kortárs megnyilvánulások (l. a VII. idyll sáska-béka synkrisis ét, az Aitia előszavában szereplő kalász- tölgy metaforát) s a kósi alkotó hagyományosan önrefl exív kijelentésként értelmezett égerfa -verse is. Mindezek alapján az anekdota költőreprezentációja a könnyűség s az ellensúly motívuma révén poetológiai vonatkozásokkal bír.

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A tanulmány a Dragma írásaira támaszkodva igyekszik bemutatni a hagyományosan németes műveltségűként számon tartott professzor és a francia kultúra kapcsolatát, megjelölve a XX. század első évtizedeinek azon francia orientáltságú intézményeit és szellemi műhelyeit, amelyek döntő hatással voltak kutatói érdeklődésére és emberi habitusára (Eötvös Collegium, Parthenon), feltérképezve a francia literatúra több évszázadára kiterjedő jártasságát, kísérletet téve alapvetően latinos-klasszikus irodalmi ízlésének vázolására, végül utalva az élete meghatározó eseményeit kísérő Stendhal-élményre.

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The paper deals with the biographical anecdotes of Philitas of Cos, who was not only extremely thin as a result of his laborious philological activity, but according to Aelian and Athenaeus, the poet leptoteros even had to wear lead weights to keep his balance against the wind. In order to support the highly discussed metaphorical interpretation of the second story, the article focuses on a possible analogue not yet examined. After the reconsideration of the sources, including the scoptic epigram, the comedy, the statue of Philitas, we analyse a zoological paradox of Hellenistic origin transmitted also by Aelian: the bees also have to carry stones as counterweight against the wind. This indirect association of the poet with the melissa, a traditional poetological metaphor, would fit well into the tradition about Philitas: he is known to have had a particular interest in nature, as among his glossographical and poetical fragments several items concern the life of bees. Moreover, contemporary critical assessments on Philitas’ œuvre are based on a very similar zoological imagery.

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At the end of the Georgics Virgil represents himself as someone nursed by sweet Parthenope (IV 536: dulcis alebat / Parthenope). According to the rather obscure tradition which goes back to Servius, Parthenope would be an allusion to one of the Sirens, patron divinity of Naples-Parthenopolis, which was the favourite place of the poet. Nevertheless, Parthenope used to be considered as a self-referential joke on the nickname of Virgil, called Parthenias (a virgin) because of his moral excellence. The paper offers a new metapoetic reading of the passage which wishes to complete the earlier interpretations based on biographical data and local tradition. The allusion should also be regarded as a statement about inspiration. By suggesting a new approach to the mythology (see the Muse replaced by the Siren), the name of Parthenope appears to create an homage to Parthenius of Nicaea and to his strange collection of erotic myths. The studies about the impact of the Erotica pathemata on Latin poetry generally focus on the Elegiacs and Ovid. Nevertheless, it cannot be excluded that the mythological allusions of the Georgics about the origins of plants, animals, etc. may be influenced by some typical narrative patterns of Parthenius. The series of these virgilian aetological notes alluding to tragic love stories of Greek mythology seems to prepare the great Orpheus myth of Book IV. On the other hand, Virgil’s short allusions might transmit a concept of human passion, which sometimes is rather similar to the emotional world of the Parthenian narratives, but which is always much more rich in ethical concerns.

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The paper which focuses on a myth of Pythagorean origin transformed by Clement of Alexandria (Protr. 1, 1, 2: a cicada saves the lyric performance of Eunomos, which was in danger because of a broken string), and on a Pythagorean symbol treated in the Stromata (5, 5, 27: the cicada as the synonym of Logos) wants to emphasize the importance of the Pythagorism for him. Clement's views on music and harmony as principles of the cosmos, on kinship of the livings, on transmission of knowledge by symbols recall ideas generally associated with Pythagoras. The father attributes eminent role to Pythagoras among the Greeks having certain notions about God. His image of the Pythagorean “believer” contributes to the portrait of the real Gnostic.

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The Georgics is in generally considered as a linear composition established by four major topics corresponding to the four books. The analysis seeks to demonstrate the presence of another, less evident structure of the poem. This is constituted by the mythological allusions made at the stylistic level of the text, in the description of the different beings, plants and animals, stars and mountains. Most of the allusions are aetiological myths with a tragic love story. The series of these reminiscences serves to prepare the final erotic-aetiological myth at the narrative level, so the story of Orpheus, Aristaeus and the bees can be regarded as an organic part of the poem (against the tradition of the laudes Galli). The analysis of the hidden erotic myths may help the interpretation of the Vergilian notion of durus amor which, together with the labor improbus, are the principles of human existence.

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The study focuses on a hidden classical allusion that has remained undetected in the biography of St. Hilarion. The young monk, tempted by carnal desire, tries to escape sin by fasting, praying and basket-weaving. Describing this last method, Jerome refers not only to the well-know monastic activity and the sentence of St. Paul - qui non operatur non manducet - but depicts basket-work as a remedy for love, an allusion to the erotic context of Virgil's Third Eclogue.

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The paper will consider the notion of body and pain in the rich epistolary work of Gregory of Nazianzus. The idea of a suffering body plays a decisive role not only in his anthropology but as well as in his ethics: being ill is seen as a particular predisposition to contemplation and making philosophy. The concept of body and pain seems to be influenced by the personality of the addressee and by the experiences of physical pathos (corporal deficiency and weakness) of Gregory himself, who wants to develop a strategy for acquiring virtue by suffering. The lecture will analyse why the body can be considered at the same time as the tool and the obstacle of the philosophical lifestyle, how does it function in the making of philia and in the works of askesis. Finally it will be argued how a certain philanthropic attitude seems to make a counterpoint to the excessive annihilation of the body never practised or approved by Gregory.

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