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Authors: Nerilee Hing, Alex M. T. Russell, En Li and Peter Vitartas

Background and aims

Marketing inducements for addictive products, such as wagering, can prompt impulse purchasing by triggering consumption reminders, urges, and cravings. Wagering inducements incentivize betting by providing bonus bets, money-back guarantees, deposits into betting accounts, and discounts. Their promotion during sporting events, push marketing efforts directed at consumers, and ease of uptake at the point-of-sale, may trigger betting on impulse. This study examined whether the uptake of wagering inducements predicted impulse betting on sport.


Australian sports bettors (N = 1,813) completed an online survey measuring their proportion of planned bets, impulse bets before match commencement, and impulse bets during play; frequency of using wagering inducements; and several psychological, behavioral, and demographic variables.


More frequent users of wagering inducements had a greater tendency to place impulse in-play bets, which were also predicted by problem gambling, higher buying impulsiveness, higher frequency of watching sports, younger age, and higher educational status. Sports bettors with a greater tendency to place impulse bets before match commencement also tended to have higher buying impulsiveness and to be younger, but they used inducements less frequently, and tended to be female, less-educated and non-problem, moderate risk, or problem gamblers.

Discussion and conclusions

Uptake of wagering inducements appeared to be particularly effective in stimulating impulse in-play betting among problem gamblers and frequent sports viewers. These results suggest that a more cautious approach to the regulation of both in-play bets and wagering inducements may be required to better protect young adults from gambling problems and harm.

Open access
Authors: Yong-Hong Wen, En-Bo Yang, Shao-Ji Xiang, Li-An Fu and Sheng-Qiang Fang


The far infrared absorption spectrum of the lithium perchlorate/benzo-15-crown-5 complex separated from various solvents has been investigated in the 250~590 cm-1 region. It has been found that the change in the medium used for the preparation of the complex probably leads to the change in the far infrared shift. A linear function of far infrared absorption band versus lithium isotope abundance in the complex was discovered. The far infrared absorption band of the complex containing 100% 6Li could be determined by extrapolation. A concept of relative reduced partition function ratio was proposed for the first time in order to calculate approximately the isotope effect of lithium by use of the data of the far infrared spectra.

Restricted access
Authors: Lisa Lole, En Li, Alex M. Russell, Nancy Greer, Hannah Thorne and Nerilee Hing

Background and aims

The broadcast of wagering advertisements during televised sports matches has been associated with various adverse outcomes. In order to counter these effects, legislative bodies require wagering operators to include responsible gambling messages in their advertisements; however, the effectiveness of these messages is unclear. This study sought to examine the extent to which responsible gambling messages are looked at, in the wider context of gambling advertisements.


Forty-nine regular sports bettors and 10 non-gamblers viewed a series of sports betting advertisements, while an eye-tracker recorded the number of fixations placed on responsible gambling messages, as well as other text-based wagering content.


Responsible gambling messages were, generally, presented in a non-conspicuous manner. Eye-tracking data revealed that significantly fewer fixations were placed on responsible gambling messages, compared to wagering information (p < .001); however, this effect did not differ according to level of gambling risk (p = .169). The number of fixations placed on the different types of responsible gambling messages was found to vary, based on gambling risk (p = .006), as well as, what appears to be, the physical characteristics of these messages.


Very few fixations were placed on, or near, responsible gambling messages, compared to other wagering information, meaning that, in their current form, they are unlikely to be effective in protecting against gambling harm. Preliminary evidence shows that presenting messages on a high-contrast/block-color background increases the number of fixations on these.


Further research is needed to identify ways of increasing the effectiveness of responsible gambling initiatives in the sports betting context.

Open access