Authors:Masagus Zainuri, Ratih Rinendya Putri, and Endang W. Bachtiar
This study aims to establish the isolation method of stem cells from pulp tissue of carious deciduous teeth.
The teeth were soaked in 1% povidone–iodine solution for about 1 min followed by washing in PBS with 1% antibiotic–antimycotic thrice. Dental pulp tissue was removed by extirpation, and then cultivated in the culture medium. Characterization of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) was carried out using human MSC analysis kit with positive markers CD90, CD73, and CD105, but negative for expressions of CD45, CD34, CD11b, CD19, and HLA-DR. Differentiation capacity of stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous (SHED) was determined by staining with Alizarin S, Alcian Blue, and Oil Red O.
There is no contamination after 3 days of culture. SHED derived from dental pulp were expressions of 99.2% of positive marker and 0.3% of the negative marker. At passage 5, SHED was differentiated into osteocyte, chondrocyte, and adipocyte types of cells in the induction medium.
SHED derived from carious deciduous teeth can be used as a source of stem cell for regenerative medicine.
Authors:Endang W. Bachtiar, Ferry P. Gultom, Atika Rahmasari, and Boy M. Bachtiar
This study aims to analyze the number Mutans Streptococci (MS) and its protein profile from the saliva of early childhood caries (ECC) and caries-free subjects.
MS counts were cultured from saliva samples, and the protein profile of MS was determined from ECC and caries-free subjects. The number of colonies were counted, and the protein bands with the molecular weight of 13, 29, 39, 41.3, 74, and 95 kDa were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis method.
We found that the number of colonies from saliva of ECC patients was higher than those caries-free (22.20 × 106 CFU/ml vs. 19.16 × 106 CFU/ml, p < 0.05). There are higher expression frequencies in protein 29, 39, 41.3, and 74 kDa of MS in ECC than caries-free subjects.
There is the higher number of MS colonies and difference of MS protein profile isolated from saliva among children with ECC and caries-free counterparts.
Authors:Endang W. Bachtiar, Retno D. Soejoedono, Boy M. Bachtiar, Alisya Henrietta, Nur Farhana, and Mindya Yuniastuti
This study aims to evaluate the effect of soybean milk containing a combination of anti-Streptococcus mutans IgY and chitosan to the colonization of S. mutans in the saliva and to the IgY persistency in the saliva.
Materials and Methods
Experimental malnourished Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with soybean milk that is enriched with anti-S. mutans IgY and chitosan. After 15 days of feeding, we evaluated the S. mutans in dental biofilm, in addition to the persistency level of anti-S. mutans IgY.
The rats that received soybean milk supplemented with anti-S. mutans IgY had the lowest number of S. mutans colonies (p < 0.05). Anti-S. mutans IgY was detected in saliva after 15 days of feeding.
Soybean milk supplemented with anti-S. mutans IgY and chitosan could significantly reduce S. mutans biofilm, and the supplemented anti-S. mutans IgY persisted in these rats’ saliva following the feeding period.
Authors:Endang W. Bachtiar, Lisa Rinanda Amir, Pradono Suhardi, and Basril Abas
To examine the degradation of three scaffolds composed of hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) with 70∶30 ratio, HA/TCP with 50∶50 ratio, and HA/TCP/chitosan scaffold as analyzed by the RNA expression of matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP2), interleukin 13 (IL13), and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) genes.
The three tested scaffolds and dental pulp stromal cells (DPSCs) were transplanted into the mandibular bone defect of six young male Macaca nemestrina. Defect on the left mandible served as the experimental group and the right mandible served as control group (split mouth design). The biopsies were retrieved at 0, 2, and 4 weeks after cell-scaffold transplantation. The expression of MMP2, IL13, and TRAP was analyzed by real-time PCR (RT-PCR).
The inflammatory cells were still detected in areas where active bone and blood vessel formation occurred. The remnants of scaffold biomaterials were rarely seen. The expression of MMP2, IL13, and TRAP was observed in all samples. Their expressions were increased at week 4 and the decrease of TRAP gene expression in the experimental group was found higher than the control group. TRAP gene in the HA/TCP/chitosan group was found to be the highest at week 2 and lowest at week 4.
Degradation of the scaffold did not induce higher inflammatory response compared to the control yet it induced more osteoclast activity.
Authors:Endang W. Bachtiar, Anggraeni Afdhal, Ratna Meidyawati, Retno D. Soejoedono, and Erni Poerwaningsih
This study aims to evaluate the effect of anti-Streptococcus mutans IgY gel on quantity of S. mutans on rats’ tooth surface. Sprague Dawley rats were exposed intra-orally with S. mutans Xc and were fed a caries-inducing diet 2000. The 24 rats were divided into four groups: group A had their teeth coated with IgY gel; group B received sterilized water as a control; group C had their teeth coated with IgY gel starting on the 29th day; and group D had their teeth coated with a gel without IgY. Plaque samples were swabbed from the anterior teeth for S. mutans colony quantification, and saliva was collected to measure immunoreactivity by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results indicated that the quantity of S. mutans in rats treated with IgY gel showed significant difference compared with the controls. After coating with IgY anti-S. mutans gel, the mean immunoreactivity in rat saliva was higher than that of the no treatment group. In conclusion, topical application with anti-S. mutans IgY gel reduced the quantity of S. mutans on the tooth surface.