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  • Author or Editor: Enikô Kubinyi x
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The aim of the present study was to examine the links between independent rating and coding approaches to assessing activity-impulsivity and inattention in dogs. Fifty-six adult Belgian shepherd dogs were videotaped performing in behavioural tests. Seventeen behavioural variables were measured by coders (video coding). Raters watched the same videotapes and then rated the activity-impulsivity and inattention of each dog (video rating). Owners filled out the Dog ADHS-RS questionnaire measuring activity-impulsivity and inattention. Video rating of activity-impulsivity correlated with the scale scores of the owner, but video codings did not. The results suggest that the owner ratings and video ratings are tapping the same constructs, but behavioural variables assessed in the present study were not appropriate for mirroring the owners’ assessments. The findings suggest that if consistent individual differences in broad behavioural traits are the primary focus of analyses, then ratings seem to capture information not easily captured in coding approaches designed to assess the same constructs.

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Here we suggest that subjects' performance in a traditional object permanence paradigm could be based on the contribution of different cognitive capacities such as (1) the ability to represent an object mentally in case of invisible displacements; (2) the ability to use appropriate deductive inferences; (3) the ability to use associative learning and local rules or cues; and (4) the presence of appropriate motivation to solve the task. In addition to these, there is another factor that may contribute to the performance, at least in some social species: (5) the ability to identify and use social rules that are formed by the interaction with the experimenter during the consecutive object hiding and search tasks. Experiment 1 was designed to demonstrate that such social rules may have an independent influence on the performance of both human and dog subjects during consecutive object hiding and search tasks. The behaviors of adult and preschool humans and adult pet dogs were compared in a modified version of the successive invisible displacements task (no object condition) and in a similar task in which, however, the location of the target object was well known by the subjects (game condition ).  During the no object condition most of the humans and dogs performed a full and systematic search of all potential hiding places. However, results in game condition indicate that Piagetian object permanence tests may be interpreted by both dogs and humans not only as object hiding and finding tasks, but, alternatively, as social-behavioral games of different sorts that may contribute to the systematic search performance. It seems that successful performance on such tasks should not be interpreted exclusively as indicating a representational understanding of object permanence and an ability for deductive inferences. A second experiment was directly designed to demonstrate the influential effect of social rules in the object hiding and finding tasks. Results show that the functional 'opacity' of the Hider's behaviour (i.e., performing both functionally relevant and irrelevant actions upon hiding) enhanced the emergence of 'obeying social rules' (i.e., dogs tended to perform search behaviour, although they knew the location of the target object). We suggest that during their domestication dogs may have been selected for certain human-like capacities such as recognising and following social rules in the context of interacting with humans.

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Biologia Futura
Authors: Kálmán Czeibert, Attila Andics, Örs Petneházy, and Enikő Kubinyi

Background and aims

Dogs have recently become an important model species for comparative social and cognitive neuroscience. Brain template-related label maps are essential for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis, to localize neural responses. In this study, we present a detailed, individual-based, T1-weighted MRI-based brain label map used in dog neuroimaging analysis.

Methods

A typical, medium-headed dog (a 7.5-year-old male Golden Retriever) was selected from a cohort of 22 dogs, based on brain morphology (shape, size, and gyral pattern), to serve as the template for a label map.

Results

Eighty-six 3-dimensional labels were created to highlight the main cortical (cerebral gyri on the lateral and medial side) and subcortical (thalamus, caudate nucleus, amygdala, and hippocampus) structures of the prosencephalon and diencephalon, and further main parts of brainstem (mesencephalon and rhombencephalon).

Discussion

Importantly, this label map is (a) considerably more detailed than any available dog brain template; (b) it is easy to use with freeware and commercial neuroimaging software for MRI and fMRI analysis; and (c) it can be registered to other existing templates, including a recent average-based dog brain template. Using the coordinate system and label map proposed here can enhance precision and standard localization during future canine neuroimaging studies.

Open access
Magyar Pszichológiai Szemle
Authors: József Topál, Ádám Miklósi, Enikő Kubinyi, Márta Gácsi, Antal Dóka, Péter Pongrácz, Zsófia Virányi, and Vilmos Csányi

A specifikus viselkedési komplexbe szerveződött humán szociális viselkedések alapvető jellegzetessége, hogy az egyes elemeket érintő evolúciós változások csak a többi képességgel összefüggésben történhettek (Csányi, 2000). E komplexum elemeinek egyidejű felbukkanása és párhuzamos fejlődése a homini­záció folyamatán keresztül végül egy humánspecifikus viselkedésrendszer megjelenéséhez vezetett. A humán szociális kogníció kutatásának evolúciós kérdéseit a hagyományos megközelítésben a főemlősök és az ember homológ tulajdonságainak összehasonlításával vizsgálhatjuk. Emellett azonban napjainkban olyan más fajok is előtérbe kerültek melyek a humán szocio-kognitív képességek evolúciós analógiáit megjelenítve szintén alkalmasak fajunk kialakulásának modellezésére. Úgy tűnik, a kutyák megfelelő viselkedési modellt jelentenek a nyelv kialakulása előtt megjelenő humán szociális készségek néhány jellemzője, különösen a vizuális és a nem verbális vokális jelek tanulmányozásához. Írásunkban amellett érvelünk, hogy a kutyák konvergens szociális evolúciója modellezi a korai (pre­ling­vis­z­tikus) humán szociális evolúciót. Bemutatjuk, hogy a humán viselkedési komplexum számos, funkcionálisan analóg eleme jelen van a kutyákban, melyek az emberi környezethez történő adaptáció révén a humán szociális kompetenciával analóg kutyaspecifikus viselkedéselemekként kerültek be a kutya viselkedési komplexbe .

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Biologia Futura
Authors: Ivaylo Borislavov Iotchev, Anna Egerer, Serena Grafe, András Adorján, and Enikő Kubinyi

Introduction

The aim of this study was to explore spontaneous social interactions between dyads of unfamiliar adult dogs. Although intraspecific encounters are frequent events in the life of pet dogs, the factors that might influence encounters, such as sex, dyad composition, reproductive status, age, and state of cohabitation (keeping the dogs singly or in groups), remained unexplored.

Methods

In this study, we assigned unfamiliar, non-aggressive dogs to three types of dyads defined by sex and size. We observed their unrestrained, spontaneous behaviors in an unfamiliar dog park, where only the two dogs, the owners, and experimenter were present.

Results

We found that the dogs, on average, spent only 17% of the time (less than 1 min) in proximity. Sex, dyad composition, reproductive status, and age influenced different aspects of the interactions in dyads. Female dogs were more likely to initiate the first contact in their dyad but later approached the partner less frequently, were less likely to move apart, and displayed less scent marking. Following and moving apart were more frequent in male–male interactions. Neutered dogs spent more time following the other dog and sniffed other dogs more frequently. The time companion dogs spent in proximity and number of approaches decreased with age.

Conclusion

The study provides guidance for dog owners about the outcomes of intraspecific encounters based on the dog’s age, sex, and reproductive status, as well as the sex of the interacting partner.

Open access