The use of both the word
and the term
ant’ agores themenos
in Solon’s Salaminian elegy led to misunderstandings, and on the basis of the poem’s words, subsequent authors supposed that Solon presented his work as a herald on the
. If he was indeed a herald, then — just like Aischines — he must have had a
(a hat to guarantee his safety) on. Therefore Solon had not been condemned to statutory death. The
was later on considered a sign of madness as a result of semantic change or radiation. Consequently, in the first century Philodemus and Cicero wrote about Solon as a madman. Yet in the case of a wise statesman this motive demanded further explanation, which is why the incident was marked as Solon’s genial idea: as if he had been aware that standing up for his cause feigning to be mad was a way to avoid punishment.
This paper summarizes the authors' up-to-date results in the research topic of railway ballast particles' breakage test with individual laboratory test. In the past few years there were a lot of railway rehabilitation and maintenance project in Hungary, as well as abroad. The largest part of world's railways has traditional superstructure, i.e. they are so called ballasted tracks. The railway ballast is the highest mass in the railways' superstructure. Nowadays, it is a naturally fact that there is enough quantity of railway ballast in adequate quality. However, due to the modifications and restrictions in the related regulations since 2010, there are only few quarries in Hungary, which are able to ensure adequate railway ballast material for railway construction and maintenance projects for speed values between 120 and 160 km/h. Quarrying industry is stricken by aggravated environmental, heritage and conservation regulations year by year, it limits the accessibility of mineral wealth in significant manner. This fact with quality requirements means supply and quality risk in production of railway ballast in medium term. The main goal of authors' research is to be able to simulate the stress-strain effect of ballast particles in real and objective manner in laboratory circumstances, as well as in discrete element method modeling. This paper introduces the exact assembly of executed laboratory test and newest test results. The authors summarize the up-to-date international literature review, using that they give short outlook to the planned research with research directions in near future.