The dating and art historical evaluation of the surviving relief ornaments of the portal of St Elizabeth's parish church in Kassa – all statues in the round being lost – are unsettled, although the building history of the church itself has been clarified. Since the interwar period the style of the reliefs was tentatively traced to the (Swabian or Bohemian) Parler sculpture, while the idiosyncratic features of the reliefs were usually ignored. Notably, the reliefs have a coarsely realistic trait which was described by Jindra Bakosová in 1982 as a local precedent to Jakob Kaschauer's art, that is, the appearance of a progressive style. This, in turn, must obviously be associated with a later date. In his article on the wooden reliefs of Christ's Passion in the Christian Museum in Esztergom published in Hungarian, in which he alleged to find their stylistic relatives in the Zwettl altarpiece in the Österreichische Galerie, young Ernst Gombrich also briefly referred to the Kassa reliefs. In the meantime, in the Hungarian art historical literature Jakob Kaschauer became an important figure of the Multscher generation rooted in the local tradition. Gombrich's theses found their way into the literature of the Znaim altarpiece when they had been translated in 1988, but his remark on the Kassa reliefs went unnoticed. In 1988 it was Robert Suckale who devoted particular attention to the realism concept of the Znaim altarpiece. Similarly to him, the present author also tends to name coarseness as the main characteristic of the Kassa reliefs, but the group of stocky figures is evidently free from Franco-Flemish influence. So it seems that similarly to the architecture of the Kassa church, the precedents to its sculptural ornamentation may also be traced to the building lodge (Bauhütte) of St Stephen's cathedral in Vienna who also mediated Parler's motifs. To be taken into account are the little known decoration of the Primglöckleintor of the Vienna cathedral, and first of all the so-called “Tutzsäule” of 1381 in Klosterneuburg. The functional relations of the relief cycle are the more important as this modus can also be encountered on the west portal of the Franciscan church in Kassa.
The above review of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences was
founded in 1957 as an organ for two disciplines of engineering sciences at the
origin, and it appears after volume 12, since 1969 as a special review f__
A lehetséges változatok közül a művészettörténet szempontjából mindenekelőtt a restauráció gyűjtőfogalma tűnik a legalkalmasabbnak, mivel ez nemcsak az építészetre, hanem más művészeti ágakra is vonatkozik. Ebben az értelemben fogalmazódott meg 1900 táján a tulajdonképpeni műemlékvédelem sokat vitatott követelménye: konzerválni, nem restaurálni. Emellett ritkán említik a restaurálások visszafordításának (német kifejezéssel: Entrestaurierung) műveletét, amelyet napjainkban nemcsak a historizáló, hanem a modernista szellemű megoldásokon is gyakorolnak. Alois Riegl altruista szemléletmódjával szemben e restaurátori magatartás a közösségi — állami — nemzeti „egoizmusok“ összefüggésében érthető meg, s vezérelve a „hitelesség”. Az eredeti materiális azonosságának a konzerválás elvén alapuló követelményével szemben az emlék hitelessége valószínűség, amely a restaurátor narratíváján alapul. Ez a narratíva a laikusnak az élményszerűséget és a vizuális kommunikációt preferáló igényeit és a politikai restauráció törekvéseit tekinti mérvadónak.
From Vienna to Berlin, preservation of historical monuments and architectural creations of Hungarian Noegothic: Vienna was influential on Hungarian Neogothic due both to its Gothic buildings (first of all St. Stephens’) and to the cercle of Friedrich von Schmidt, organized in the form of a lodge. Imre Henszlmann has begun his art historical activities already in the 1840ties in this sense and he collaborated later with Schmidt's Hungarian pupils. Another school of Historicism was represented by the Berlin-trained Ödön Lechner, who, on the bell-tower of his parish church in Budapest/Kőbánya followed the Pfarrturm of St. Bartholomew in Frankfurt, rebuilt after the fire of 1867 by Franz Joseph Denziger. Lechner's 1893 design, considered as one of the incunables of his Secessionist style belongs thus also to solutions inspired by Gothic architecture. Part 2. Historicism in Secession discusses recent views in Hungarian art historical literature about Secessionism as an anti-historical movement. It proves, that ideas about peasant art as conserving national antiquities go back to Gottfried Semper's wide-spread theories about the origin of styles, and have so the same roots as Historicism based on European styles. E.g. Alajos Hauszmann, also a Berlin-trained architect and companion Lechner's tried to synthetize Hungarian popular ornaments with Rococo stuccoes in the interiors of the Buda Royal palace. The visual reconstructions by Ede Thoroczkai-Wigand of King Attila's wooden palace (1912) on the stained glass windows of the Palace of Culture in Marosvásárhely were also influenced by Semper's theories on tectonics as the origin of architecture.
The traitment of the ornament on the richly decorated pieces from the Ercsi Abbey witnesses of a close relationship to the circle which is named in art historical literature after its main center as a group around Pécs, Székesfehérvár and Somogyvár. A new element of the articulation represents the presence of a special ending of vertical profiles, named in German art history as Hornauslauf and widely spread from the Rhine valley to Alsace and to Saxony as well. It may originate on the building of Worms Cathedral, which is now dated more closely to Speyer Cathedral in the first third of the 12th century. It could be appear in Ercsi in the last quarter of the 12th century, perhaps in the same time as e.g. in Wechselburg. This relationship can also be important for the origin of the ornamental forms, which may go back to unfinished ornamental pieces both in Worms and an Speyer. This form of articulation does not occur in any known works of the Pécs–Székesfehérvár–Somogyvár circle, but in a very sophisticated form on the exterior of the south apse of the Gyulafehérvár cathedral in Transylvania, which can be dated shortly before or around 1200.
This introduction is the edited version of the opening speech delivered at the scientific conference and exhibition commemorating the bicentenary of Miklós Ybl’s birth (1814–1891). As the first representative of the professional architect emancipated from the guild organization, Ybl still enjoys a quasi symbolic prestige in the Hungarian architectural community. Instead of becoming a member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, he owed his success and great influence — upon determining the stylistic character of the Hungarian capital, Budapest from 1873, for example — to the confidence placed in him by the liberal aristocrats who played a leading role in the management of the scholarly institution. Since in the early 20th century the historicism of renaissance inspiration which he represented was discarded as eclectic academism, and in the decades of socialist realism the style was condemned for class-struggle reasons, it was only in the past two or three decades that the positive evaluation of the principle of style choice and pluralism of styles could gain ground. The paper stresses the continuity of neo-classicism and historicism reviving the gothic and the Romanesque styles as well as the neorenaissance mode in the tradition of the academic theory of architecture. It does not deny the importance of function but reckons with an iconological interpretation of function which is contradictory to 20th century functionalism.