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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Ervin Albert, Rita Sipos, Szilárd Jánosi, Péter Kovács, Árpád Kenéz, Adrienn Micsinai, Zsófia Noszály, and Imre Biksi


The last surveys on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated from bovine milk in Hungary took place in the 2000s. To elucidate the genetic variability and to estimate the burden of the pathogen, MRSA from our strain collection and prospectively collected Staphylococcus aureus (SA) isolates originating from two milk hygiene laboratories were investigated. Between 2003 and 2018, 27 MRSA strains originating from 10 dairy farms were deposited and characterised. Most strains (n = 20) belonged to ST1-t127-SCCmecIV and were recovered from three unrelated farms. From other farms, variable genotypes were identified sporadically: ST22-t032-SCCmecIV from three farms; a newly described double locus variant of ST97, ST5982-t458-SCCmecIV from two farms; and ST398-t011-SCCmecIV and ST398-t011-SCCmecV from two respective farms. The prospective screening of 626 individual SA isolates originating from 42 dairy farms resulted in four (0.48 %) MRSA strains from three (7.14 %) farms. All MRSA isolates belonged to the clonal complex 398 and a novel spa-type t19251 was also identified. Most isolates were resistant to three or more antimicrobial classes. The occurrence and significance of MRSA of dairy origin seems to be unchanged in the past decade in Hungary. However, the low host specificity and multiresistance of the identified genotypes calls for periodic revision on the role and distribution of the pathogen in the Hungarian dairy sector.

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Transabdominal ultrasonography has been shown to be a useful and reliable method for assessing fetal well-being in horses and cattle. To test the applicability of fetal aortic diameter measurement in cattle, 44 late-term pregnant cows and heifers were examined 21 to 0 days prior to calving. Mean fetal aortic diameter was 2.07 ± 0.14 cm and mean fetal heart rate (FHR) was 109 ± 17 bpm. Three dead calves were dissected and their aortic diameter was measured in a water bath. The mean birth weight (n = 44) was 39.9 ± 5.8 kg. There was a significant negative correlation between FHR and fetal aortic diameter. However, although some studies have shown that fetal aortic diameter strongly correlates with birth weight in near-term horses and cattle, in this study there was no correlation between fetal aortic diameter and birth weight in Holstein-Friesian cows and heifers irrespective of whether the fetus was born alive or dead.

Open access
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Tibor Magyar, Barbara Ujvári, Levente Szeredi, Norbert Virsinger, Ervin Albert, Zoltán Német, Edit Csuka, and Imre Biksi

This paper reports an outbreak of haemorrhagic septicaemia caused by Pasteurella multocida B:2 in beef calves, a disease that has not been described in the Hungarian literature since 1943, and has not been reported to the World Organisation For Animal Health (OIE) since 1970. Acute haemorrhagic septicaemia was confirmed in beef calves on one small farm, and was suspected on two further nearby holdings with concomitant unexplained losses. The source of the infection could not be determined. Apart from a short duration of depression and loss of appetite, the affected calves developed characteristic distal limb oedema. Gross findings in two calves submitted for laboratory examinations included subcutaneous oedema and haemorrhages on serous membranes, and in one case severe pharyngeal lymph node enlargement was observed. Histological examinations revealed lesions characteristic of septicaemia. Moderate to large amounts of Pasteurella antigens were detected in all organs tested by immunohistochemistry. Two isolates of P. multocida (Pm240, Pm241) were cultured from these cases and examined in detail. These were identified as P. multocida ssp. multocida biovar 3. Both were toxA negative and belonged to serotype B:2. Multilocus sequence typing was used to assign these to a new sequence type (ST64) that is closely related to other haemorrhagic septicaemia causing strains of P. multocida regardless of the host.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: Anna Valkó, Ervin Albert, Attila Cságola, Tünde Varga, Krisztián Kiss, Rózsa Farkas, Zsuzsanna Rónai, Imre Biksi, and Ádám Dán

Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) is an emerging enteropathogen, causing great economic losses in the pig industry. After many years of quiescence, PEDV was detected in Hungary in 2016 with a recombination in its S gene. In order to determine the extent of this change, an attempt was made to isolate the recombinant PEDV. This study was extended with a variety of samples collected from three separate farms with newly identified PEDV in 2018. The recombinant PEDV from 2016 was isolated successfully along with three viruses from 2018, and one isolate from the new cases was used for whole genome determination. Whole genome sequence alignment revealed the highest identity with recombinant Hungarian and Slovenian PEDV within the low-pathogenic European viruses. This suggests that these recombinant PEDV are circulating in this area and may spread to other parts of the continent.

Open access