Authors:Ágnes Dencs, Ágnes Farkas, Mónika Gyugos, Andrea Kurcz, Erzsébet Puskás, B. Tresó, Erzsébet Rusvai, Erzsébet Barcsay and Mária Takács
A nosocomial Hepatitis B virus (HBV) outbreak at a paediatric onco-haematology unit was investigated using molecular biological methods to determine the origin of the infections. The National Reference Laboratory of Hepatitis Viruses received seven HBsAg positive sera from patients and one from the brother of a patient. A fragment of the preS1/preS2/S genes from all samples was amplified, the PCR products were sequenced and a rooted phylogenetic tree was constructed. All nucleotide sequences from the different patients were very similar and 6 of the 8 sequences were identical, suggesting a common origin of the infections. These sequences were closely related to those amplified from a nosocomial HBV epidemic in another hospital in Hungary. The on-scene investigation revealed several malpractices. The two hospital departments had close connections and some of the patients were treated in both institutions. Present report underlines the importance of developing screening protocols for hepatitis viruses and that of the introduction of regular training programs for health care professionals in the field of hospital hygiene.
Authors:Mária Takács, Ágnes Dencs, Csenge Csiszár, Andrea Hettmann, Erzsébet Rusvai, Katalin Szomor, Vilmos Pálfi and Béla Nagy
Torque teno virus (TTV) belongs to the floating genus of
. It was discovered in a human patient, and later it was also found in animals including pigs. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and estimate the prevalence of swine TTV in Hungarian pig herds for the first time, and to characterise the viruses found. Serum samples of 82 adult swine from 13 piggeries and 44 weaned pigs from one large herd were tested by PCR for the presence of TTV DNA. Viral DNA was found in 30% of the adult swine and 73% of the weaned pigs tested. Liver and intestine of weaned pigs were also tested and found to be infected at a lower rate. The TTV sequences found in sera and intestines were similar and could be clustered as swine genogroup 1. However, the sequences derived from one liver were remarkably different from all other known genogroups and seemed to represent a new genogroup.
Authors:Csaba Kővágó, Petra Forgách, Ágnes Szabára, Míra Mándoki, Ákos Hornyák, Conor Duignan, Erzsébet Pásztiné Gere and Miklós Rusvai
Bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) is a viral disease appearing in various forms and causing high economic losses in the cattle stocks of Hungary. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in Hungary through a monitoring survey carried out on samples collected in cattle-keeping units throughout the country. Since no such survey had been carried out in Hungary during the last thirty years, our study may serve as a basis for later monitoring investigations aimed at following the progress of an expected eradication campaign of BVD. The tests were carried out using an ELISA method, on a total of 1200 blood samples submitted from 54 cattle herds. The herds had not been vaccinated against BVDV before the sampling. Out of the 1200 samples, 521 proved to be positive (43.4%), 40 gave doubtful result (3.3%) and 639 were negative (53.3%). In some stocks the samples were collected from cows having completed several lactation periods, and therefore the seronegativity indicates the BVDV-free status of the given stock. Moreover, among the positive herds we found a few where the seropositivity rate was rather low (< 5%). According to the results of the survey, a rather high portion (about one third) of the cattle-keeping units of Hungary can be regarded as BVDV free, which ratio is much higher than had been expected on the basis of surveys carried out on a lower number of samples and in smaller regions of the country. Hence, the chances of an eradication campaign launched in the near future, or carried out parallel to the IBR eradication programme, are better than previously expected.