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Pollution of the natural environment by heavy metals is a universal problem because these metals are indestructible and most of them have toxic effects on living organisms, when permissible concentration levels are exceeded. The degree of contamination in the sediments of the Smolnik creek, for the metals Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Al, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb, has been evaluated using Enrichment factor (EF), Pollution load index (PLI) and Geo-accumulation index (Igeo). The sediments have been found to be contaminated with Pb, Cu and As which has been attributed mainly acid mine drainage from abandoned shaft Pech (the mine Smolnik) since no major industrial establishments are present in the area.

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The conception of environmental risk assessment caused by physical, chemical and biological factors rise from human health hazards approaches. The conception consists of ecological and health risks assessment. While in the health risks case the human is the object of the evaluation, in the case of ecological risk assessment the probability of undesirable influences on more species and also on real ecosystems is studied. The evaluation of physical factors risks is delimited by methods useful for evaluation of danger of each factor. In present the finding of suitable method is the subject of research. The contribution deals with describing the methods of environmental risk assessment in European Union focused on water management.

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Silting of water reservoirs by bottom sediments is one of the major problems of their service. Industrial wastes, geochemical structure and metals mining create a potential source of heavy metal pollution in the aquatic environment especially in sediment. Water reservoir Ruzin located in east Slovakia is one of the most contaminated sites by heavy metals originating from mining activity. The paper deals with the study of sediment quality from three different deep sampling sites from Ruzin reservoir by using of XRF, XRD analysis and the determination of the effect of pH on the redistribution of metals in sediment-water system.

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The remains of human activities may be seen in several places of the landscape in positive or negative form. Probably the most common phenomenon that fundamentally impacts the country is mining activity. The environmental problems caused by mining have attracted a great deal of research attention and led to development of numerous sediment heavy metal contamination assessment methods, including the index method, the dynamic method, the synthesis methods in chemistry, ecology and toxicology, etc.

This research was undertaken in order to determine and analyze selected heavy metals present in sediment samples collected from different sampling localities inside and around water reservoir Ruzin, Slovakia. Reservoir and its inflows are located in the vicinity of region with historical Cu, Fe, Ag, Au-deposit, which was exploited from the 14th century to 1990 and currently causing environmental burden. For the determination of sediments quality different methods (XRD and XRF analysis) have been used.

Based on the obtained data of analysis, potential ecological risk indices were used to study the pollution status of heavy metals in sediments and assess their potential ecological risk to environment.

The calculated potential ecological risk indicates the level of water environment pollution by heavy metals in the sampling localities in the studied area.

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Pollack Periodica
Authors:
Ivana Schwarzova
,
Nadezda Stevulova
,
Eva Singovszka
,
Eva Terpakova
, and
Jozef Junak

This article concerning natural cellulose fibers as reinforcement in composite materials in civil engineering. In this paper, the attention is given to industrial hemp specifically to the woody part of hemp plant called hemp hurds. The properties of natural fibers are mainly determined by the chemical and physical composition, such as structure of fibers.

The objective of presented research is to characterize raw and physically treated hemp fibers using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy method. These natural fibers were used as filler into biocomposites and MgO-cement was used as alternative binder. Physico — mechanical properties (compressive strength, thermal conductivity, absorbability) of prepared composites were determined.

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