The aim of this two-part review is to highlight some of the numerous newer aspects of quality related wheat research and its achievements in the last two decades. The first part described the directions of more and more multi-interdisciplinary wheat quality oriented research with an enlarging gap between breeding — and industry oriented quality research. These general comments were followed by the session describing our understanding the role of components of wheat flour determining bread-making quality. This second part of the review overlooks the new directions of quality related basic and applied research in pre-breeding and breeding as well as in the wheat industry, including genetic, molecular biological, biochemical chemical, instrumental and model-making/predictive methodologies. A brief coverage of the directions and achievement in the more and more important two non-traditional quality areas, the nutrition- and health-related quality attributes are followed by a short conclusion and speculation on future direction.
The aim of this two-part review is to highlight some of the numerous newer aspects of quality related wheat research and its achievements in the last two decades. In the first part — after a short introduction highlighting the essential need of quality improvement and its changing and widening meaning — a brief section describes directions of the more and multi-interdisciplinary wheat quality oriented research with special emphasis on the “omics”-type of population-based strategies and width the enlarging gap between breeding — and industry oriented quality research and its consequences. These general comments are followed by the session describing our understanding of the role of components of flour determining bread-making. The first two sections of the second part of the review overlook the new directions of quality related basic and applied research in breeding and breeding as well as in the wheat industry, including genetic, molecular biological, biochemical chemical, instrumental and model-making/predictive methodologies. A brief coverage of the directions and achievement in the more and more important two non-traditional quality areas, the nutrition- and health-related quality attributes are followed by a short conclusion and speculation on future direction.
This paper aims to give an overview on the different aspects of QTL analysis of quality traits of wheat through the brief introduction of molecular genetics, cereal chemistry and the statistical methods developed and applied recently in this area. Some examples are also provided, based on the author's research activity carried out in the National Wheat Molecular Marker Program (NWMMP) established in Australia in 1996.
In Australia in the early 1890s, the wheat breeder William Farrer and chemist Frederick Guthrie shared a vision of selecting cross-bred wheats for enhanced grain quality. Guthrie was the newly appointed chemist of the Department of Agriculture of the Colony of New South Wales. Their goal to select lines with good milling quality was difficult because Farrer’s plots produced only ounces of grain for testing. In a day when there was no written background to the task, Guthrie set about devising small-scale milling equipment that could produce flour from the many small samples of grain coming from Farrer’s breeding program. Guthrie used two pairs of small rolls manufactured by the Ganz Company of Budapest. The testing procedure was extremely tedious, requiring 13 successive passes of milling and sieving. Guthrie’s test mill and the results have been described in several publications. In addition, his mill has been reconstructed as a one-quarter-scale model as a result of the efforts of Mr Colin Hopkins, a retired chemical engineer. In contrast to this 120-year-old technology, there is now more advanced technology for test milling very small grain samples (only 5 to 10 grams of grain) with the development of a novel laboratory micro-mill, the FQC-2000, manufactured by Inter-Labor, Hungary. These old and new developments have involved collaborations between Hungary and Australia.
Authors:M. Oszvald, B. Jenes, S. Tömösközi, F. Békés, and L. Tamás
We generated and analysed transgenic rice lines synthesizing substantial amounts of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS) from wheat. Particle bombardment has been used to transform rice cultivars (
L.) with a cassette carrying the gene of 1D×5 HMW glutenin subunit. Twelve independent lines were recovered and PCR results on genomic DNS confirmed the integration of the transgene into it. Five lines set seeds. Seeds were analysed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot and we proved the presence of foreign protein in the starchy endosperm. The amount of 1D×5 HMW-GS in rice endosperm represents 0.75–3.18% of the alcohol soluble proteins. These results are the first example of significantly changing storage protein composition of rice exploiting the method of gene technology. This alteration may have considerable effect on the functional properties, including strength and stability of the dough made of transgenic rice flour.
Authors:M. Oszvald, S. Tömösközi, L. Tamás, and F. Békés
Structure and composition of wheat storage proteins and functional properties of wheat gluten are well studied; therefore several methods and instruments are available to determine these properties. The investigation of functional properties of rice proteins, depending on the different goal of utilisation, has not been well established, yet. In this study, the rheological properties of four varieties of rice flour were studied using a 50 g Farinograph demonstrating the mixing properties of rice flours and the alterations of these properties caused by the supplementation of wheat proteins. The considerable differences identified on the mixing curves of different rice flours indicate that the investigation of mixing properties can be one of the useful approaches for the characterisation of functional properties of rice dough. The large effects of the addition of wheat gluten on the mixing properties of rice flours demonstrate the possibility of using rice flour and dough as a wheat protein free model system for the in vitro investigation of the functional roles of wheat storage proteins.
Authors:Q. Riaz, K. Ács, F. Békés, R.F. Eastwood, A. Farahnaky, M. Majzoobi, and C.L. Blanchard
Grain fructans play an important role in the physiology of wheat plants and also impact on the health of consumers of wheat-based products. Given the potential economic importance of fructan levels, if genetic variability could be identified for this trait, it may be a potentially useful breeding target for developing climate-resilient and nutritionally enhanced wheat varieties. The aim of the current study was to screen 78 genetically diverse Australian wheat varieties released between 1860 and 2015 to determine if historic breeding targets have resulted in changes in fructan levels and to identify potential breeding parents for the development of varieties with specific fructan levels. The impact of seasonal conditions on grain fructan levels were also investigated. Analysis of the varieties in this study indicated that historic breeding targets have not impacted on grain fructan levels. Fructan content in flours varied between 1.01 to 2.27%, showing some variation among the varieties. However, a significant variation in fructan levels was observed between different harvest years (mean values for 2015 and 2016 samples were 1.38 and 1.74%, respectively). While large variations in fructan contents of different varieties were not found, there were some varieties with consistently higher or lower fructan contents which could be used to breed varieties with specific fructan levels.
Authors:G. Balázs, I. Baracskai, M. Nádosi, A. Harasztos, F. Békés, and S. Tömösközi
The utilisation of microchip capillary electrophoresis has the potential to improve the capability of high throughput sample analysis of biomolecules. The aim of this study was to review this capability for cereal protein analysis.The commercially available lab-on-a-chip (LOC) technology was characterised in the separation of total proteins extracted from whole wheat meals. Important analytical parameters (such as repeatability) of both qualitative (molecular size estimation) and quantitative (relative percentage of total protein) aspects of LOC data were determined and discussed in the light of the need of possible applications. It revealed that the LOC has very good repeatability and reproducibility parameters; however the non-globular structure of the proteins can highly affect the sizing accuracy. Among other applications, the profiles were found to be suitable for wheat cultivar identification and to monitor environment related alterations on protein composition.After a confirmation process the LOC can be an appropriate tool for fast protein profile screening in cereal science and technology in diverse applications, and it can complement the conventional methods of analysis.
Authors:A. Kovács, M. Rakszegi, L. Láng, W. Ma, F. Békés, and Z. Bedő
The characterization of the old Hungarian varieties and landraces is an important part of Hungarian cereal research and breeding. Analysis of these germplasms with the most up-to-date methodologies results a broad scale of diversity of glutenin alleles, which proves their genetic heterogenicity. Exploitation of this attribute is an untapped possibility for developing modern varieties in our breeding programs. The previous research work revealed this diversity by SDS-PAGE analysis and MALDI-TOF technology. The powerful tool, the high throughput lab-on-a chip technique can facilitate the effectiveness of this function and decreases the cost of the analysis. This study demonstrates the application of this technique for analysing the old varieties. The allelic composition and their effects on bread making quality concluded by means of functional analysis.
Authors:M. Rakszegi, G. Balázs, F. Békés, A. Harasztos, A. Kovács, L. Láng, Z. Bedő, and S. Tömösközi
Damaged starch, protein and arabinoxylan (AX) content and composition have been related to water absorption (WA) in a large set of samples. We tested 20 modern bread wheat cultivars bred in Hungary, 20 old Hungarian landraces, and 17 cultivars with special biochemical/functional characteristics from all around the world, this last set for international comparison. Grain was field grown in the 2011 and 2012 harvest seasons. Alinear mathematical model has been developed to estimate WA from protein content, starch damage, AX content and the relative amount of soluble proteins with strong correlation (r2 = 0.65) between measured and estimated data. The introduction of a new parameter, related to the cultivar dependent quantitative composition of soluble proteins and determined by lab-on-a-chip (LOC) analysis, largely improved the predictability of WA. Based on the large variation among the level of AX and certain soluble protein components in wheat flour and their significant contribution toWA determination, it was concluded, that these properties could be appropriate target traits to alter them during wheat breeding programs to improve the WA of wheat flour.