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The damage caused by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogynidae) (irregular galls of different sizes on the plant roots) is a general problem in greenhouses in Hungary.The effect of Trifender microbiological preparation has been investigated on the degree of damage caused by root-knot nematodes in green-house pepper. We set up our experiment in Pusztamonostor (Jászság region, Hungary) in a family farm in 2008 and 2009. We carried out preliminary evaluation (Zeck-scale; 0–10) in the precrop with symptomatic assessment. According to the preliminary evaluation, the infection showed rates of 2–3 on the average.The results of 2008 show that Trifender had no effect on the number of females, but the plant height has been increased by 12 and 15%, and yield has grown by 25–35%. But on the contrary, in 2009 the number of females was decreased by 33%, and plant height was increased by 11%.

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The second part of the review dealing with the diagnostic radiology of pet and wild birds discusses the indications of radiological examination, the interpretation of radiographs taken of pathological lesions, and the differential diagnosis of such lesions. Radiology has paramount importance in the diagnosis of diseases affecting the skeletal, digestive, respiratory, urogenital and cardiovascular systems. Certain diseases (shortage of grits, ovarian cysts) cannot be recognised without radiography. Other conditions (e.g. Macaw Wasting Disease, renal tumours, egg retention) require this complementary diagnostic method for confirmation of a suspicion based upon the clinical signs. Radiographic examination is also indicated for follow-up of the surgical management of bone fractures and for facilitating the implantation of transponders aimed at individual identification of the birds.

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Authors: György Várady, Borbála Biró, Nóra Kucsma, H. E. A. F. Bayoumi and Mihály Kecskés

A növények oltására is felhasználható Pseudomonasok, azaz a PGPR (növényi növekedést serkentő) rhizobaktériumok sziderofor- (vaskelát) képző tulajdonságuk miatt, a talajeredetű kórokozók távoltartásával, a növénytermesztésben is hasznosuló tevékenységet fejthetnek ki. A szideroforok képződésére ható tényezők ily módon hatással vannak a törzsek antagonista jellegének a kialakulására, és ezáltal az irányított biológiai védekezés hatásosságára is.

Laboratóriumi körülmények között ezért hazai talajokban nőtt különböző mezőgazdasági növények rizoszférájából származó, BIOLOG gyorsteszttel azonosított 11 Pseudomonas rhizobaktérium törzs nehézfém-érzékenységét tanulmányoztuk. A szaporodási képesség mellett a PGPR hatásban szerepet játszó sziderofor-termelő képesség ellenőrzése is megtörtént AgNO3, CoSO4∙7H2O és CrK(SO4)∙12H2O vegyületek 10, 40, 160 és 640 μM mennyiségeinek a hatására folyékony és táplemezes eljárásokkal.

Megállapítást nyert, hogy az alkalmazott nehézfémek nemcsak a törzsek szaporodási képességét, hanem a kórokozok távoltartásában fontos sziderofortermelő képességet is befolyásolták. Ezek mértéke és tendenciája ugyanakkor különbözőképpen nyilvánult meg a fémek típusától és az alkalmazott dózisoktól függően. A növekvő koncentrációk fokozatos toxikussága mellett a fémszennyezettségnek serkentő, szinergista módon kedvező tulajdonságai is előfordultak. A vizsgált, különböző élettani funkciók, azaz a Pseudomonasok szaporodása és vaskelátképző tulajdonságai a nehézfémekkel szemben eltérő érzékenységet mutattak. Az alkalmazott laboratóriumi technikák a rhizobiológiai monitoring alkalmas eszközeinek bizonyultak a nehézfémek károsító hatásainak megfelelő színtű detektálására is.

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Two guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) with clinical signs of anorexia, weight loss, depression and abdominal enlargement were examined. During ultrasound examination, a fluid-filled anechogenic structure 3–4 cm in diameter, with echogenic spots and a highly echogenic thick wall, was found in the pelvic region in one case and connected to the liver in the other case. An abscess or a cyst was suspected and surgical treatment including laparotomy was performed. By histopathological examination performed after surgery, a liver abscess was diagnosed in one guinea pig and an abscess in the pelvic region in the other animal.

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Actual distribution maps of vegetation types are important data sources of basic and applied research, respectively. Though there were several attempts to map the actual vegetation of Hungary, the MÉTA program was the first to map all the (semi-)natural habitat types on the whole territory of Hungary. The paper discusses the woodland and shrubland habitats. 41 habitats are presented and discussed. The paper provides additional data on the area and distribution of the habitats mainly at the physical geographical macroregion scale.

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Actual distribution maps of vegetation types are important data sources of basic and applied research, respectively. Though there were several attempts to map the actual vegetation of Hungary, the MÉTA program was the first to map all the (semi-)natural habitat types on the whole territory of Hungary. The paper discusses the habitats with treeless vegetation. 45 habitats are presented and discussed. The paper provides additional data on the area and distribution of the habitats mainly at the physical geographical macroregion scale.

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Due to its nearly 1.5 million ha extension and the aimed fine mapping resolution, classical vegetation mapping was not suitable method to prepare the habitat map of Duna-Tisza köze region (Hungary). We developed a novel mapping method. By this method the actual status of more than 12,000 patches of semi-natural vegetation was recorded, documented previously as grasslands, wetlands, open forests and grasslands with scattered trees and shrubs in the middle of the 1980s. A digital layer of 272,387 ha at 1 : 25,000 resolution was created as the background of the analysis. Vegetation type was classified at 46,930 points in the mapping area. The collaboration of 59 colleagues resulted in the development of the digital geographical database of the study area (D-TMap GIS Point database). One-third of the data relies on field data, while the other two-thirds on satellite interpretation. Landscape pattern and the accuracy of the statistical data of the habitats, generated from the point database, are improved by the polygonised version of the point database (D-TMap GIS Polygon database). In this paper we show how the GIS Point database was generated, and summarise the ecological content, availability, and limitation of the derived point and polygon based actual habitat maps. Analysis of the database and the landscape scale pattern of the habitats are discussed in a further paper.

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Regional habitat pattern of the Danube-Tisza Interfluve in Hungary, I

The landscape structure and habitat pattern; the fen and alkali vegetation

Authors: M. Biró, A. Révész, Zs. Molnár and F. Horváth

As a result of the groundwater level decline observed in the last two decades and the socio-economic changes, we assume that a drastic alteration begins in the landscape pattern of Danube-Tisza Interfluve (Duna-Tisza köze, Kiskunság s. l.). It demands the documentation of the actual state of vegetation in this region, and its quantitative analysis, as well. In the first of the two articles presenting our results we discuss the regional habitat-pattern of the landscape, the background factors determining it, and the basic features of fen and alkali vegetation. In the second part, this will be completed by the sand, riverine and steppe vegetation and the data on habitat-devastation on the regional scale.During our study we determined the Danube-Tisza Interfluve (with a total extension of nearly 1.4 million ha) in the geographical sense. The analysis of the present habitat-pattern of the region was based on data of the actual (1996–2000) habitat map of Danube-Tisza Interfluve (Molnár et al. 2000, Biró et al. 2000) and on our experience during the field survey. We compared our data to surface-geographical, pedological and hydrological works, to maps from the 18–19th centuries on land-use, to botanical studies accomplished in the 19–20th centuries and to the results of other related sciences. The quantitative analysis of the vegetation pattern was carried out considering the vegetation subregions.About half (49.4%) of the surveyed, not cultivated habitats of the Danube-Tisza Interfluve is in a natural, semi-natural state, and nearly a quarter of them (23.8%) is essentially disturbed or under deep human impact. During the one- and-a-half decades between the topographical mapping of the mid-1980s and the habitat mapping (D-TMap), 14.7% of the surveyed habitats disappeared, and appr. 12.1% is now in the state of regeneration after the disturbance of the distant or the recent past. Today, fen vegetation (including the vegetation of non-alkali swamps and uncharacteristic fen vegetation that is drying out at present) is predominant among the studied habitats of the region (it covers 95,135 ha), that is followed by alkali vegetation with an extension of about half of the former one (47,226 ha).The joint vegetation categories (sand, fen, alkali and riverine vegetation) of the region compose vegetation zones running north and south. So, on the two sides of the Sand Ridge vegetation zones dominated by fen habitats lie, which is followed by the zone of alkali habitats; finally, the riverine vegetation prevails along the rivers Danube and Tisza. From the abiotic factors determining these zones we emphasised the hydrodynamic characteristics — that play recently the most essential role. As a result of the analysis of landscape pattern, it became obvious, that the natural habitats — similarly to the hydraulically continuous groundwater flow systems — of the Danube-Tisza Interfluve compose hierarchical systems, basically on three different levels (on the local, intermediate and regional scale). In this point of view, those areas are considered as a certain system, where the underground water flow (recharge, throughflow and discharge) forms a uniform flow system. We approached to the survey of the actual vegetation of the Danube-Tisza Interfluve with this viewpoint of the hierarchically structured habitat pattern.

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Regional habitat pattern of the Danube-Tisza Interfluve in Hungary II

The sand, the steppe and the riverine vegetation, degraded and regenerating habitats, regional habitat destruction

Authors: M. Biró, A. Révész, Zs. Molnár, F. Horváth and B. Czúcz

The increased endangerment and rapid devastation of the vegetation on the Danube-Tisza Interfluve are quite complex processes that can be approached from a manifold ways. One of the most important factors having influenced the vegetation in the recent past is the decline of the groundwater-level, the extent of which is well known and the reasons for that have been investigated for a long time. However, only few have studied its dramatic effect on the vegetation outside the local scale. In the first part of our bipartite article we discuss the regional habitat-pattern of the landscape, the background factors determining it, and the basic features of fen and alkali vegetation (Biró et al. 2007). In this second part, this will be completed by the sand, riverine and steppe vegetation and the data on habitat devastation on the regional scale. The analysis of the present habitat-pattern of the region was based on data of the actual (1996–2000) habitat map of Danube-Tisza Interfluve (Molnár et al. 2000, Biró et al. 2003) and on our experiences during the field survey. The quantitative analysis of the vegetation pattern was carried out considering the vegetation subregions. Our aim is to expose the actual state of the landscape, the vegetation and the rapid devastation of the natural habitats, by quantifying the current processes.Our results demonstrate that the extension of those habitats on the Danube-Tisza Interfluve that were not under cultivation in the 1980s has decreased drastically, by 40,074 ha (approx. 15%). The main reasons for grassland devastations are ploughing, afforestation, the invasion of shrubs and trees, the building in activity and the establishment of open water surfaces. The most serious decline in the recent past was observed in the case of fen vegetation: the decrease of its extension was estimated to be 10–11%. More than half of the habitats disappeared as a result of ploughing and grassland-devastation due to urbanisation (building in, development of infrastructure, etc.) was covered by fen vegetation, while about a quarter of them consisted of alkali habitats. Sand areas mostly decline because of the spontaneous invasion of alien species and afforestation, which led to the devastation of approx. 4% of the natural and disturbed sand vegetation. Astonishing is the fact that the total extension of the more-or-less disturbed or devastated habitats altogether comprise roughly half (49%) of the actually mapped vegetation patches of the Interfluve (137,908 ha). By summing up the areas of the most frequent habitat types of the vegetation subregions, it became evident that the grasslands, ploughed in the past 15 years, are among the first five most spacious habitat types in all subregions.

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Authors: K. Biró, F. Figueras, C. Alvarez, S. Békássy and J. Valyon
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