The use of Quantrad Sensor's ScoutTM in field type applications is described. The portability of the ScoutTM enables the user to obtain more accurate information in the field versus a survey meter. Isotopic identification is possible
when ancillary information is combined with built-in software libraries. Data from the ScoutTM in remediation at Stanford Linear Accelerator (SLAC), NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Maerial) measurements in California's
Central Valley oil fields, medical isotope identification at nuclear pharmaceutical company and emergency response applications
are presented. Additionally, custom software enabled the use of the ScoutTM in identification, qualification and detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) in illicit trafficking and portal monitoring
DSC and TG-DTA techniques were used to investigate micro-sized silver powder particles and the adsorption of ethyl cellulose
on these particles in a solution of ethyl acetate. The apparent specific heat of the silver particles was determined, and
the kinetics of temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) of these adsorbed silver particles was investigated. Results show
that the apparent specific heat and desorption kinetic parameters obtained by thermal analysis techniques could be used to
characterize certain physico-chemical properties of such a particulate system.
Quantrad Sensor's hand-held multichannel analyzer (MCA), the ScoutTM, has evolved considerably from the initial licensing from Pacific Northwest Laboratories (operated by Battelle Memorial Institute
for the U.S. DOE). The ScoutTM has grown into a flexible MCA system with alpha-, gamma-, X-ray and neutron detection capabilities with wide ranging applications.
The development philosophy is discussed along with specific examples of design choices in areas such as manufacturability,
upgradability, probe interchangability and software user interface. Recently introduced products include: software enhancements,
additional probes, customized software and a second generation instrument, the Scout512TM, that boasts increased capabilities. Future developments are also discussed.
External-beam PIXE was used for the non-destructive analysis of early glasses unearthed from the tombs of Warring States (475–221BC) and Han Dynasty (BC 206–AD 220) in south China. It was found that these glasses were basically attributed to PbO—BaO—SiO2 system and K2O—SiO2 system. The results from the cluster analysis showed that some glasses had exactly the same recipe. The source of the K2O flux and the correlation between PbO and BaO are discussed. Some archeological information is revealed.
Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is an ultra-sensitive method to monitor and trace the environmental exposure levels of 14C-labeled molecules in vivo. Nicotine [3-(1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-pyridine], a major alkaloid in tobacco products, has proven to be a potential genotoxic compound. Using 14C-labeled nicotine and AMS, we have investigated the inhibitory effect of curcumin, garlic squeeze, grapeseed extract, tea polyphenols, vitamin C and vitamin E, respectively, on nicotine-hemoglobin (Hb) adduction in vivo. The results demonstrated that these dietary constituents induced remarkable decrease of nicotine-Hb adducts. The inhibitory fact may afford an important clue of the chemoprevention of the potential nicotine-induced carcinogenesis.
Three aromatic polyimides based on 3,3′,4,4′-biphenyl-tetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA) and three different diamines 2,2′-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl (PFMB), 2,2′-dimethyl-4, 4′-diaminophenyl (DMB) or 3,3′-dimethylbenzidine (OTOL) have been synthesized. These polyimides are soluble in hotp-chlorophenol,m-cresol or other phenolic solvents. Fibers have been spun from isotropic solutions using a dry-jet wet spinning method. The as-spun fibers generally exhibit low tensile properties, and can be drawn at elevated temperatures (>380° C) up to a draw ratio of 10 times. Remarkable increases in tensile strength and modulus are achieved after drawing and annealing. The crystal structures of highly drawn fibers were determinedvia wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). The crystal unit cell lattices have been determined to be monoclinic for BPDA-PFMB and triclinic for both BPDA-DMB and BPDA-OTOL. Thermomechanical analysis (TMA) was used to measure thermal shrinkage stress and strain. A selfelongation has been found in the temperature region around 450°C. This phenomenon can be explained as resulting from the structural development in the fibers as evidencedvia WAXD observations.
A new high molecular weight polyimide based on 4,4′-oxidiphthalic anhydride (ODPA) dianhydride and 2,2′-dimethyl-4,4′-diaminobiphenyl (DMB) diamine has been synthesizedvia a one-step polymerization method. This polyimide is soluble in phenolic solvents. Films from 7 to 30 μm thick were cast from the polymer solution and show in-plane orientation on a molecular scale detected by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy experiments. This anisotropic structure leads to anisotropic optical properties arising from two different refractive indices along the inplane and out-of-plane directions. ODPA DMB possesses high thermal and thermo-oxidative stability. The glass transition temperature has been determined to be 298 °C. Dynamic mechanical analyses show two relaxation processes appearing above room temperature: the β- and the α-relaxation processes. The α-relaxation corresponds to the glass transition while the β-relaxation is a secondary relaxation process associated with the non-cooperative subsegmental motion.
The behavior of153Sm-EDTMP in vitro and vivo is analyzed by the size exclusion HPLC. The experimental results show that EDTMP amounts have an
obvious effect on the stability in vitro and uptake of153Sm-EDTMP in the liver. HPLC analysis of urine sample indicates that153Sm-EDTMP es excreted in the original form. The behavior in vivo of153Sm-EDTMP containing 4 μg is similar to that of153Sm-EDTMP containing 50 μg EDTMP at 1 h post-injection.
DTPA-Octreotide(Pentetreotide), a somatostatin analogue which can bind specifically and with high affinity to somatostatin
receptor in vitro and vivo, labeled with99mTc by tin reduction in acetate buffer, has been characterized by Reverse-phase High performance Liquid Chromatography. The
effect of different solvents, mobile phase pH, linear gradient and the injected volume on the separation efficiency was evaluated.
The results show that the separation efficiency is best using μBondapak-C18 (300×3.9 mm2), linear gradient of 40% to 80% methanol (1.0 ml/min) in 0.05M acetate buffer (pH 5.5) over a 30 min period and maintaining
for another 10 min. The labeled product is a mixture which mainly consists of five components (a, b, c, d, e) successfully
proved by HPLC. Paper chromatography is also evaluated in this paper. It may be used to determine the radiochemical purity
of the labeling product, but is not a good choice for the verification each components.