Authors:G. Rabnecz, G. Záray, L. Lévai and F. Fodor
The effect of heavy metals on the leaf plasma membrane electron transport systems was investigated in connection with the tissue Fe concentration in Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient cucumber leaves. Ten M μPb in the nutrient solution inhibited leaf ferricyanide reduction by 20–26%, whereas 10 M μCd had a more drastic effect, with 80–83% inhibition. Ferricyanide reduction decreased by 14% when 1 mM Pb was applied
by vacuum infiltration into control leaf discs, whereas it decreased by 40% when 0.1 mM Cd was applied. Ferricyanide reduction was completely inhibited by 1 mM Cd. The ferricyanide reduction values were correlated with the heavy metal, Fe and chlorophyll concentrations in the leaves. A significant linear correlation was only found with the chlorophyll concentration. The data suggest that there are also direct effects on membranebound reductases, but these are of less significance. Using differentially Fe-deficient plants (grown with 0 to 300 nM Fe in the nutrient solution), a chlorophyll concentration of 0.9–1.0 mg g
fresh weight was estimated as the threshold for achieving the ferricyanide reduction levels found in the controls.
Authors:G. Tornyos, Melinda Kovács, M. Rusvai, P. Horn, J. Fodor and F. Kovács
Only few data are available on the effect of fumonisins on the immune response. The aim of the present study was to examine whether dietary fumonisin B1 (FB1) has any effect on the humoral and cellular immune response in weaned pigs, depending on the dose and the time of toxin exposure. Fusarium moniliforme fungal culture was added to the experimental animals' diet to ensure an FB1 intake of 1, 5 and 10 ppm (first experiment) or 100 mg per animal per day (second experiment). The control animals were fed a toxin-free diet. In order to determine the immune response, the animals were vaccinated against Aujeszky's disease with inactivated vaccine (Aujespig K, Phylaxia-Sanofi, Budapest, Hungary). Specific and nonspecific in vitro cellular immune response was measured by the lymphocyte stimulation test (LST) induced by PHA-P, Con A, LPS and inactivated suspension of the Aujeszky's disease virus. Humoral immune response, e.g. specific antibody titre, was measured by the virus neutralisation (VN) test. None of the immunological parameters examined showed significant differences between groups. It could be concluded that fumonisin B1 had no significant effect on the humoral and cellular specific and nonspecific immune response when fed in a high dose (100 mg/animal/day for 8 days) or in a low concentration even for a longer period (1, 5 and 10 ppm for 3-4 months).
Authors:Éva Sárvári, L. Gáspár, Á. Solti, Ilona Mészáros, Gy. Záray and F. Fodor
To check the importance of Cd-induced iron deficiency in Cd stress, symptoms of Cd stress were compared with those of iron deficiency or the combination of these two stresses. Poplar plants grown in hydroponics with Fe-EDTA (e) or Fe-citrate (c) up to four-leaf stage were treated for two weeks either by the withdrawal of iron (Fedef), or supplying 10 μM Cd(NO3)2 in the presence (Cad) or absence of an iron source (Fedef + Cad). Cadmium and iron content of leaves developing under the stress was in the order of cCad > eCad > cFedef + Cad and cCad ≈ eFedef ≈ cFedef + Cad < eCad < cFedef, respectively. Growth inhibition was much stronger in Cad than Fedef plants. The inhibitory effects on CO2 fixation, maximal and actual efficiency of PSII, chlorophyll synthesis, as well as the stimulation of the accumulation of violaxanthin cycle components and increase in non-photochemical quenching were the strongest in cFedef+Cad plants, otherwise these parameters changed parallel to the iron deficiency of leaves. Tendency of changes in thylakoid composition were similar under Cad treatments and strong iron deficiency: particularly PSI and LHCII decreased. Therefore, the development of the photosynthetic apparatus under Cd stress was mainly influenced by the Cd-induced strong iron deficiency, while leaf growth was affected primarily by the presence of Cd.
The Separation Problem, originally posed by K. Bezdek in , asks for the minimum number s(O, K) of hyperplanes needed to strictly separate an interior point O in a convex body K from all faces of K. It is conjectured that s(O, K) ≦ 2d in d-dimensional Euclidean space. We prove this conjecture for the class of all totally-sewn neighbourly 4-dimensional polytopes.
Authors:Kinga Fodor, L. Zöldág, S. Gy. Fekete, A. Bersényi, A. Gáspárdy, Emese Andrásofszky, Margit Kulcsár, F. Eszes and M. Shani
An experiment was carried out with young male New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits to establish live body weight changes, body measurements, body composition and sexual maturity as a function of feeding intensity. Animals in Group 1 ('AL', n = 10) were fed ad libitum, while those in Group 2 ('RS', n = 10) received restricted feeding corresponding to 70% of the ad libitum level. The starting liveweights were practically the same (0.907 ± 0.146 and 0.911 ± 0.147 kg in Group AL and Group RS, respectively). The feeding trial lasted from 6 to 22 weeks of age. The average body weight was significantly higher in Group AL from 7 to 22 weeks of age. At 22 weeks of age the body weight of RS rabbits was 85.64% of the weight of AL animals (3.22 ± 0.52 kg and 3.76 ± 0.33 kg, respectively). Average body weights of RS males at 8, 9, 11, 19 and 21 weeks of age were similar to those of ad libitum fed (AL) animals at 7, 8, 10, 15 and 16 weeks of age, respectively. The growth of bucks fed restricted tended to be allometric. The most significant difference was found at 16 and 18 weeks of age, while the lowest difference occurred at 6, 12, 15 and 19 weeks of age. It can be stated that low-intensity feeding up to slaughtering weight causes backwardness in rear cannon length and this backwardness remains also after the 15th week, which is well over the optimal slaughtering age. Based on the present data, the 70% restricted feeding cannot be recommended either for the future breeding bucks or for broiler males reared for slaughter. To determine the major chemical components of the body, rabbits were euthanised. Original dry matter and crude fat content of the body significantly (P < 0.05) decreased under restricted feeding (41.42%; 32.48% and 16.73%; 7.35%) while the percentage of protein within the dry matter increased (49.6%; 65.0%) and fat decreased (40.17%; 22.1%) significantly. Libido unambiguously decreases as a consequence of feed deprivation. The most conspicuous difference was found in the level of blood testosterone. Although a few RS bucks produced semen but only much later than the rabbits fed ad libitum. On the other hand, there was no difference in the motility of spermatozoa and ejaculate volume in comparison with AL animals. There was no relationship between the body fat content and the reproductive status of bucks in the present trial.
Authors:Kinga Fodor, S. Gy. Fekete, L. Zöldág, A. Bersényi, A. Gáspárdy, Emese Andrásofszky, Margit Kulcsár and F. Eszes
Twenty-six 6-week old female New Zealand White rabbits were divided into two groups: ad libitum (AL) and 70% restricted (RS) feeding. At the beginning of the experiment the liveweights were practically the same: 0.99 ± 0.08 vs. 1.01 ± 0.08 kg in group AL and RS, respectively. At 18 weeks of age the body weight of Group RS rabbits was 84.7% (3.14 ± 0.24 kg) of the group AL (3.71 ± 0.31 kg). The apparent digestibility of crude protein was significantly (p < 0.001) higher in Group RS than in Group AL (76.5 ± 1.4 vs. 73.0 ± 2.7%). The daily water consumption was significantly (p < 0.05) higher (3.5 ml/g DM intake) in Group RS as compared to Group AL (1.9 ml/g DM). Since the average body weight in Group RS at 18 weeks was the same as that of Group AL at 14 weeks of age (3.14 kg), the comparison of the live body measures and indices was based on these ages. Animals fed ad libitum or restricted show no differences at the defined age in most live body measurements except in heart girth and rump width, which were significantly (p < 0.05) shorter in Group AL than in Group RS (29.3 ± 0.8, 5.7 ± 0.5 and 30.7 ± 1.0, 6.2 ± 0.3 cm, respectively). Body capacity was significantly (p < 0.05) smaller in Group AL, as the head capacity-body capacity proportion was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in Group AL than in Group RS (1653.1 ± 134.5, 22.0 ± 2.5 and 1913.7 ± 168.7, 17.7 ± 1.9, respectively). Due to restricted feeding the growth of the head proved to be less intensive than that of the body at the same body weight. The body in these does tended to be wider. Since the head in comparison to length or capacity of the body was smaller in does fed 70% of ad libitum, it could be concluded that the development of body parts of restricted-fed does was unequal (allometric growth). The effect of feed restriction reflected in lower dry matter and fat, and a higher ash and protein content both in total body and in dry matter composition of rabbits at 18 weeks of age. Restricted feeding delayed sexual maturity (69 vs. 92% of rabbits) with later starting ovarian activity, weaker ovarian responsiveness, and a smaller number of tertiary follicles on the ovarian surface.