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Kinetic analysis has been performed on TG and DTG diagrams of the forward reaction MnCO3⇌ MnO + CO2, recorded at different pressures of CO2 ranging form 2.6. 10−4 Pa to 26.6 kPa. The results obtained show that this reaction follows a first-order kinetic law, independently of the CO2 pressure used in carrying out the experiments. On the other hand, the activation energy increases on increase of the CO2 pressure, from 117 kJ/mol up to an asymptotic value of 292 kJ/mol at about 26.6 Pa. This finding cannot be explained by considering the influence of the reverse reaction of formation of MnCO3, for under the described experimental conditions the ratio to zero. A mechanism that takes into account the adsorption of CO2 on the phase boundary has been proposed in order to interpret the results.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: C. González, J. I Gutiérrez, J. R. González-Velasco, A. Cid, A. Arranz, and J. F. Arranz

Thermal decomposition of various synthetic manganese oxides (MnO, Mn3O4, Mn2O3, MnOOH) and a natural manganese dioxide (MnO2) from Gabon was studied with the help of termogravimetry in inert, oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The compounds were characterized by XRD and electrochemical activity was tested by cyclic voltammetry using a carbon paste electrode. The natural manganese dioxide showed the best oxidizing and reducing capacity, confirmed by the lower temperatures of the transitions, the extent of the reactions and electrochemical performance in cyclic voltammograms.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: G. Vázquez, F. López-Suevos, J. González-Alvarez, and G. Antorrena

Summary  

Phenol-urea-formaldehyde-tannin (PUFT) adhesives have been prepared by copolymerization at room temperature of pine bark tannins with phenol-urea-formaldehyde (PUF) prepolymers prepared under varying operating conditions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) have been used to analyse the curing of prepolymers and adhesives. DSC curves were obtained at three different heating rates and, by means of the Model Free Kinetics isoconversional method, chemical conversion vs. time at a given temperature was obtained. Mechanical conversion was calculated from DMA storage modulus data for those adhesives which gave the best results for plywood and MDF boards.

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Abstract  

Two indicators regarded to reflect the status of disciplinary differentiation were assessed through citation analysis. Adoption of scientific innovations (publications utilizing new scientific information) and interdisciplinary linkages (percentage of total publications of single disciplines which are cross-referenced by other disciplines) were investigated in selected biological professions. Findings indicated: 1) a significant delay in the use of innovations and a significant difference in the emphasis of interdisciplinary linkages in several professions and disciplines; 2) faster adoption of innovations and greater interdisciplinary linkages in areas with broader disciplinary contents; 3) an inter-personal communication pattern; and 4) slower adoption in applied than in basic fields.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors: F. J. González-Vila, F. Martin, C. Sáiz-Jiménez, and H. H. Nimz

Thermofractography (TF) has been applied to humic and fulvic acids from four different soil types. Among the thermal products, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, catechol, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, vanillin, phenol, furfural, guaiacol and indole were identified. These are typical fragments from lignins, microbial polyphenols, polysaccharides and proteins.

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Solid crystalline complexes of furan-2-hydroxamic acid (FHA) and six metallic divalent cations (Ca(II), Ba(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Cd(II)) were prepared. In all cases the stoichiometry was 2(FHA)∶1 (cation). The solids were characterized by elemental analysis, TG, DSC and IR techniques.

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Abstract  

Thermogravimetric analysis of pyridine adsorption was applied to study the acidity at different temperatures of clays pillared with Al pillars and mixed Al-Ga pillars, in relation to the starting montmorillonite. These results were compared with those obtained by means of a pulse-chromatographic technique. The pillaring process produces a large number of acid centers in the samples. Al-Ga-PILC has a higher acidity than Al-PILC.

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Abstract  

Interdisciplinary synthesis and validity analysis (ISVA), a structured learning approach which integrates learning and communication theories, meta-analytic evaluation methods, and literature management-related technologies was applied in the context of the 1993–1997 bovine mastitis research literature. This study investigated whether ISVA could: 1) facilitate the analysis and synthesis of interdisciplinary knowledge claims, and 2) generate projects or research questions. The bovine mastitis-related literature was conceptualized as composed of microbiological, immunological, and epidemiological dimensions. Keywords involving these dimensions were searched in theMedline andAgricola databases. A final list of 148 articles were retrieved, analyzed, synthesized into fifteen information sub-sets, and evaluated for construct, internal, external and statistical validity through an interdisciplinary iterative dialogical process. Validity threats were re-phrased as new research or educational projects.

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Abstract  

The thermal dehydration of Ce2(SO4)3·5H2O, Ce2(SO4)3·8H2O, Ce2(SO4)3·9H2O and their isomorphous deuterated compounds was studied by means of thermogravimetric measurements. A kinetic analysis of the TG curves obtained was carried out by computer. The thermal stability, Arrhenius parameters and mechanism of dehydration were investigated.

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The aim of this research was to assess the total antioxidant activity (TAA) of lipophilic (Lextr) and hydrophilic (Hextr) tomato extracts using in vitro chemical tests and cell-based assays, focusing on possible synergistic actions between tomato antioxidants. Both Hextr and Lextr were HPLC analysed for their carotenoids, phenolic compounds, and ascorbic acid contents. For the evaluation of TAA, extracts were assayed alone or in combination using in vitro chemical tests (TEAC, FRAP) and cell-based (CAA) assays using human hepatoma (HepG2) and human histiocytic lymphoma (U937) cells. The only carotenoid detected in Lextr was lycopene, while a mixture of phenolic compounds (chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin) was identified in Hextr. Ascorbic acid was not found either in Hextr or in Lextr. Upon extract combination (1:1, v/v), the FRAP assay revealed additive action between Lextr and Hextr, whilst a slight synergistic action was observed in TAA as measured by the TEAC assay. Synergistic action was better revealed when TAA was analysed using either U937 or HepG2 cells. This could be explained by the presence of a multiphase media (cell membrane and extra- and intracellular media) that might facilitate the distribution and interaction of antioxidants with different polarities and different mechanisms of action.

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