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  • Author or Editor: F. Iskander x
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Abstract  

Oil smears /2–10 mg/ on a filter paper were directly brominated by bromine vapor, and the quantity of Br reacted with the lipid was determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis. The iodine value for commercially available almond oil, sunflower oil, peanut oil, soy oil and sesame oil were determined by the proposed method. The relative standard deviation associated with the measurements was less than 3%. No significant difference was observed between the iodine values determined by the proposed method and that determined by one of the officially approved methods. The proposed method possesses the advantages of shortening reaction time and applicability to small sample size.

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Abstract  

Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used to measure the concentrations of 24 elements in four honey brands commercially available in Austin, Texas (USA). The measured elements (and concentration) were: As, (<30 ng/g); Ba, (<2 g/g); Br, (0.24–0.49 g/g); Ce, (<20 ng/g); Co, (9–180 ng/g); Cr, (37–64 ng/g); Cs, (<3–45 ng/g); Fe, (<4–15.9 g/g); Hf, (<3 ng/g); Hg, (1 ng/g); K, (91–230 g/g); La, (<4 ng/g); Na, (20.3–25.3 g/g); Ni, (0.39–0.77 g/g); Rb, (68–340 ng/g); Sb, (13–61 ng/g); Sc, (<0.3–200 ng/g); Se, (<20 ng/g); Sm, (<9 ng/g); Sr, (<2 ng/g); Th, (<4 ng/g); U, (<30 ng/g); Zn, (3.36–4.61 g/g); and Zr, (<0.5–0.84 g/g). The results obtained were compared to the concentration of the same elements in honey produced or commercially available in Turkey, Mexico, El-Salvador, China, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.

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Abstract  

The concentration of 28 elements in tobacco and cigarette paper in an Egyptian Cigarette were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis. These elements are: Al, As, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, Ti, V and Zn. The cigarette filter (before and after normal smoking) and the produced ash were analyzed to determine the adsorption of the elements on the filter and their remains in ash. The material balance for the determined elements were calculated.

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Abstract  

A cigarette brand manufactured in the Republic of China was analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis to determine the concentration of 27 elements in cigarette tobacco, cigarette wrapping paper, cigarette filter before and after smoking and in the dropped ash. The results were compared to the literature values for American and other international cigarette brands.

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Abstract  

Five locally available garden and lawn fertilizers were analyzed for elemental content using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The fertilizers were labeled as High Yield; Slow Release, 13-13-13; 16-8-4 and 28-4-4. The concentration ranges of the elements measured, in g/g, were: Ba<10-105; Br 0.55-272; Co 0.33-3.74; Cr 10.0-42.5; Cs0.09-1.02; Eu 0.05-0.42; Fe 1840-9830; Ga<1-4.6; Ge<0.1-1.23; Hf0.07-2.32; La 1.66-10.4; Na 57.6-3990; Nd<9; Ni<3-12.3; Rb 2.42-48.5; Sb 0.03-0.24; Sc 0.3-3.11; Se 2.68-10.2; Sm<0.4-2.13; Sr 21.7-214; Ta<0.01-0.052; Tb 0.05-0.28; Th 0.52-2.16; U 0.18-0.38; Zn 10.8-233 and Zr<1-8.95. Some of these elements are recognized as micronutritiens (e.g., Fe & Zn), and are necessary for plant growth. However, other elements may lead to undesirable environmental effects. The undiscriminating use of fertilizers, especially in home gardening, may result in the increase of toxic elements (Co, Cr, Se, Sb, Th, U etc.) in the underground water supply.

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Egyptian and foreign cigarettes

I. Determination of trace elements in cigarette filter before and after smoking

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Author: F. Iskander

Abstract  

Neutron activation analysis has been employed to determine the concentration of 27 elements in an Egyptian cigarette filter before and after smoking. The filter of three foreign cigarette brands are also analyzed and compared to the Egyptian brand. The elements determined are Al, As, Ba, Br, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th, Ti, V and Zn. It is observed that the concentration of the measured elements in the Egyptian brand are within the concentration range of foreign brands, and that the concentration of As, Br, Cl, K, Na and Se in the filters are increased after smoking regardless the brand examined.

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Egyptian and foreign cigarettes

II. Determination of trace elements in tobacco, ash and wrapping paper

Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Author: F. Iskander

Abstract  

The concentration of 27 elements has been measured using neutron activation analysis in a cigarette brand commercially manufactured in Egypt and in three foreign brands available on the Egyptian market. The cigarette components examined were cigarette tobacco, cigarette wrapping paper and cigarette ash. All results are expressed in absolute values per cigarette. The concentration of Al, As, Ba, Br, Cl, Cs, Eu, Fe, Mn, Na, Ni, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th, Ti and V in the Egyptian cigarette were above the range determined for the foreign brands examined; however, Ce, Co, Cr, Hf, K, La, Mg, Se and Zn were within that range. Except for K, Mn, Ni and Ti, the above conclusions was the same for elements determined in the ash. The wrapping paper used for the Egyptian cigarette contains the lowest quantity of Cl and Mn.

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Abstract  

Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed to measure 26 elements in three wheat varieties and in bran retained on U.S. standard sieve#e40. It was observed that the mineral content of bran was much higher than whole wheat and more than 90% of the elemental content was retained in the bran. The concentrations of As, Ce, Cr, Cs, Eu, Hf, Hg, La, Sb, Sc, Sr, Th and V in whole wheat and bran were below the detection limit.

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Abstract  

Three commercial infant milk formulas, one commercial infant cereal formula and one locally grown cereal used for infant feeding in Nigeria were analyzed for 17 trace elements, viz: Al, As, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Se and Zn. The commercial milk formulas contain adequate amounts of Ca, Cl, Co, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na and Zn, the locally grown cereal contains adequate amounts of Co, K, Mg, Mn and Zn and low in Ca, Cl, Fe and Na while the commercial cereal has adequate amounts of Ca, Cl, Co, K, Mg, Na and Zn. None of the samples analyzed was found to contain any elements up to threshold toxicity limits of concentrations.

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Abstract  

The AL-R8 stainless steel sealed insert that is currently used for interim storage of plutonium pits at the Pantex facility in Amarillo, Texas, is designed to provide an inert storage environment for the plutonium pits for a 50-year service life. There is concern that the high chlorine content and absorbed moisture present in the packaging material, Celotex, may lead to corrosion of the container over time. The main objective of this study was to determine chlorine in the Celotex as well as in the various leaching procedures using neutron activation analysis.

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