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Dracocephalum (dragonhead) with about 60 to 70 species is mostly annual or perennial herbs or subshrubs. These species have medicinal values including anticancer, antioxidant, ant hypoxic and immune modulator activities. Dracocephalum thymiflorum grows in limited areas in Iran and forms few local populations and is extensively used by locals. We have no information on anatomical and morphological features of these medicinal species in the country. Clustering and PCA ordination of the studied populations based on morphological and anatomical data separated some of these populations from the others suggesting the existence 2 varieties within this species.

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The genus Dracocephalum L. (Lamiaceae) with about 60 to 70 species is a genus in the sub-tribe Nepetinae, tribe Mentheae of Lamiaceae family, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. They are mostly perennial herbs, and rarely annual. Flora Iranica reports 8 Dracocephalum species and the Flora of Iran reports 10 Dracocephalum species in Iran out of which, 4 species are endemic. We collected 7 Dracocephalum species and studied species delimitation and species relationship by morphometric and anatomic results. The species were efficiently delimited by morphological and anatomical characters. Morphological and anatomical characters revealed closer affinity between D. moldavica and D. subcapitatum and D. thymiflorum were placed with distance from these species.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: M. Sheidai, S. Darini, S. M. Talebi, F. Koohdar, and S. Ghasemzadeh-Baraki

The genus Linum L. is an important plant genus as it contains the species with economic values and particularly Linum usitatissimum L. that is source of fibre and linseed oil. This genus contains 230 species throughout the world and has about 22 species in Iran. Little is known about Linum species relationship and phylogeny. Therefore, the aim of present study was molecular phylogenetic investigation of the Linum species growing in Iran and to present data on their biogeography. We used both ITS and chloroplast DNA sequences (psbA-trnHGUG region) for inferring the species phylogeny and relationship. We also used cpDNA for inferring the species time of divergence and with ISSR markers to identify the path of species distribution in the country. The phylogenetic trees obtained for both ITS and cpDNA sequences were almost congruent. NeighborNet diagram and BEAST tree based on Bayesian method separated the outgroup species Hugonia and Anisadenia from the other species studied. The subspecies studied in Linum macronicum were placed close to each other and along with L. corymbulosum comprised a separate clade. The clades obtained showed divergence time between 5–20 mya. The present study revealed that the species of the sect. Linum are monophyletic, while members of the sections Linastrum and Syllinum are intermixed and seem to be paraphyletic.

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