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  • Author or Editor: F. L. Melquiades x
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Summary  

This paper presents the first measurement of the elemental composition of the suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere of Londrina city (Paraná State, Brazil). The sampling was accomplished in the summer of 2003 and in the winter of 2002, with a stacker filter holder, collecting simultaneously the fine particulates (PM2.5) and the coarse particulates (PM10). The concentration of K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb associated with particulate matter was determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The results of the grouping analysis suggested that the elements in the aerosol particles came from two sources: soil re-suspension and industrial or anthropogenic activities.

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Summary  

Cesium-137 methodology has been successfully used to assess soil erosion. Seven erosion plots were sampled to determine the 137Cs profile and to assess the erosion rates. Cesium-137 profile for native pasture plot showed an exponential decline below 5 cm depth, with little 137Cs activity in the superficial layer (0-5 cm). Cesium-137 profile for wheat-soybean rotation plot in conventional tillage showed a uniform distribution with depth. For this plot, the soil loss occurs more in middle than upper and lower level. Cesium-137 profile for wheat-soybean rotation and wheat-maize rotation plots in no-tillage showed a similar result to the native pasture, with a minimum soil loss in the superficial layer. Cesium-137 profile for bare soil and cultivated pasture plots are similar, with a soil erosion rate of 229 t ha-1 year -1 . In the plots with a conventional tillage a greater soil loss occur in middle than upper and lower level. In no-tillage cultivation plots occurs soil loss in lower level, but no sign of soil loss neither gain in the upper level is observed. Cesium-137 methodology is a good tool to assess soil erosion and the 137Cs profile gives possibility to understand the soil erosion behavior in erosion plots.

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