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Abstract  

This article is dedicated to develop an experimental approach for directly visualizing the global freezing phase change behavior of micro liquid droplets. The infrared (IR) thermograph was proposed to image the basic solidification phenomena of droplet and to acquire its temperature variations during the transient process. In particular, the volumetric recalescence event, regarded as initiation of freezing, was revealed by IR images for the first time. Preliminary results demonstrated that the involved temperature transition due to release of the latent heat can be accurately characterized by evident color break in IR images. Further, experiments were also performed simultaneously on three kinds of droplets made of pure water, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and nano liquid to grasp more precise temporal and spatial temperature distribution. Types of the occurring solidification and the initial frozen volume produced from the recalescence were generally discussed. The IR monitoring method suggests a straightforward way for detecting the freezing phase change activity and its temperature evolution at micro scale.

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Abstract  

An apparatus to study the battery system has been set up. The thermal effects of charge and discharge of Ni-MH batteries have been studied. The calorimetric measurements indicate that the net heat dissipation during charging is larger than that during discharging. It is observed that the ratio of heat dissipation to charging energy varies with charging capacity, and almost 90 percent of charging energy is lost as heat dissipation near the end of the charging process at 97.7 mA. A jump of thermal curve near the end of discharge due to a secondary electrode reaction has been observed.

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Abstract  

In this work some calorimetric measurements were also carried out on the electrorefining silver by using different current densities with a Calvet type microcalorimeter at room temperature. The ratio (R) of the measured heat (

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m) to the input electric energy (
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in) and the excess heat (
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ex), i.e., difference between
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m and
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in during the electrorefining process, were discussed in terms of general thermodynamics. It was found that the R and
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ex for silver were related with the current density or cell voltage employed in the experiment. The results obtained here also indicate that the heat generation under different conditions, such as different currents or voltages may be caused partially by the irreversibility of the process or by some unknown processes.

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We present a new method to asses the strength of indirect interactions and to indentify candidate keystone species in quantitative food webs. We apply this method to the structural analysis of a host-parasitoid community. The strength and symmetry of indirect interactions between 12 leaf-miner hosts and their 27 hymenopteran parasitoids are quantified. It is shown that (1) quantifying longer pathways helps in determining which species have more important direct or indirect effects on others, (2) a keystone pattern of relative species importance, based on positionality in the interaction network, seems to characterize this community, (3) considering longer pathways results in a characteristic “few strong - many weak” distribution of interaction strength, and (4) between the majority of species pairs the interaction is weakly asymmetrical. We emphasise that a very simple network algebra approach may offer important predictions on both species- and community-level patterns.

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Summary

Formaldehyde in aquatic products was determined by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Separation was carried out at 25 °C and 25 kV, using a fused silica capillary (75 µ internal diameter; 50.5 cm effective length) and an ultraviolet detector set at 360 nm. The optimal background electrolyte was 20 mM sodium tetraborate and 20 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate at pH 9.0 with 3 s hydrodynamic injection at 30 mbar. Electrophoretic analysis took approximately 6.5 min. The correlation coefficient of the calibration curve was 0.999 over the concentration range 2.0–100.0 mg L−1, and the LOD and LOQ values were 0.57 and 1.89 µg mL−1, respectively. The recoveries were from 83.7% to 97.2% with steam distillation as the sample pretreatment method.

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Abstract  

A solid complex of rare-earth compounds with alanine, [ErY(Ala)4(H2O)8](ClO4)6 (Ala=alanine), was synthesized, and a calorimetric study and thermal analysis for it was performed through adiabatic calorimetry and thermogravimetry. The low-temperature heat capacity of [ErY(Ala)4(H2O)8](ClO4)6 was measured with an automated adiabatic precision calorimeter over the temperature range from 78 to 377 K. A solid-solid phase transition was found between 99 and 121 K with a peak temperature at 115.78 k. The enthalpy and entropy of the phase transition was determined to be 1.957 Kj mol-1, 16.90 j mol-1 k-1, respectively. Thermal decomposition of the complex was investigated in the temperature range of 40~550C by use of the thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric (TG/DTG) analysis techniques. The TG/DTG curves showed that the decomposition started from 120 and ended at 430C, completed in three steps. A possible mechanism of the thermal decomposition was elucidated.

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Scientometrics
Authors: Xingjian Liu, F. Benjamin Zhan, Song Hong, Beibei Niu, and Yaolin Liu

Abstract

We evaluated earthquake research performance based on a bibliometric analysis of 84,051 documents published in journals and other outlets contained in the Scientific Citation Index (SCI) and Social Science Citation Index (SSCI) bibliographic databases for the period of 1900–2010. We summarized significant publication indicators in earthquake research, evaluated national and institutional research performance, and presented earthquake research development from a supplementary perspective. Research output descriptors suggested a solid development in earthquake research, in terms of increasing scientific production and research collaboration. We identified leading authors, institutions, and nations in earthquake research, and there was an uneven distribution of publications at authorial, institutional, and national levels. The most commonly used keywords appeared in the articles were evolution, California, deformation, model, inversion, seismicity, tectonics, crustal structure, fault, zone, lithosphere, and attenuation.

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The essential oil extracted from Nardostachys chinensis Batal (NCB) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with two chemometric resolution methods (CRM), heuristic evolving latent projections (HELP), and selective ion analysis (SIA). Qualitative analysis was performed by comparing the obtained pure mass spectra with those in National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) mass spectra database. Identification of some compounds was assisted by comparison of programmed temperature retention indices (PTRIs). The quantitative results were obtained by overall volume integration (OVI). A total of 69 compounds in the essential oil of N. chinensis Batal were identified, accounting for 93.98% of the total content. The major compounds were (−)-spathulenol, epiglobulol, trans-longipinocarveol, and patchouli alcohol which contribute to the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The results showed that the efficiency and reliability were greatly improved by use of chemometric techniques and programmed temperature retention index as assistants of GC-MS in identification of the plant essential oil.

Open access

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether co-administration of nerve growth factor (NGF) and butyrate regulates vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1) and substance P (SP) levels in cultures of rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. DRG was dissected out from embryonic 15-day-old Wistar rat and cultured as dissociated cells for 2 days then exposed to NGF (10 ng/ml), butyrate (1 mmol/L), NGF (10 ng/ml) plus butyrate (1 mmol/L) for another 4 days. The neurons cultured continuously in media served as normal control. After that, the cultures were processed for detecting expression of mRNA for VR1 and SP in DRG neurons by RT-PCR, and expression of VR1 protein by Western blot. SP basal release levels were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Capsaicin-evoked SP release was measured by RIA after stimulation with capsaicin (100 nmol/L) for 10 minutes. The neurons exposed to vehicle solution served as vehicle control. Either NGF (10 ng/ml) or butyrate (1 mmol/L) promoted expression of SP mRNA, VR1 mRNA, and VR1 protein in DRG neurons and capsaicin-evoked SP release from DRG neurons. Co-administration of NGF and butyrate showed a synergistic effect on expression of VR1 mRNA, and VR1 protein in DRG neurons and capsaicin-evoked SP release from DRG neurons and a ceiling effect on SP mRNA expression. The elevation of SP mRNA, VR1 mRNA, and VR1 protein promoted by NGF and/or butyrate may be associated with increases of SP release evoked by capsaicin. The mechanisms of the effects of co-administration of NGF and butyrate should be clarified by further study.

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Summary

A simple and rapid capillary electrophoretic procedure for analysis of matrine and oxymatrine in Kushen medicinal preparations has been developed and optimized. Orthogonal design was used to optimize the separation and detection conditions for the two active components. Phosphate concentration, applied potential, organic modifier content, and buffer pH were selected as variable conditions. The optimized background electrolyte contained 70 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate and 30% acetonitrile at pH 5.5; the separation potential was 20 kV. Each analysis was complete within 5 min. Regression equations revealed linear relationships (r > 0.999) between peak area and amount for each component. The detection limits were 1.29 μg mL−1 for matrine and 1.48 μg mL−1 for oxymatrine. The levels of the two active compounds in two kinds of traditional Chinese medicinal preparation were easily determined with recoveries of 96.57–106.26%. In addition, multiple linear regression and a non-linear model using a radial basis function neural network approach were constructed for prediction of the migration time of oxymatrine. The predicted results were in good agreement with the experimental values, indicating that a radial basis function neural network is a potential means of prediction of separation time in capillary electrophoresis.

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