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Abstract  

The electrochemical reductions of hexavalent and tetravalent uranium are reported in -butyrolactone, -valerolactone, -octanoiclactone and in the mixed solvent -butyrolactone/tetrahydrofuran. The transient techniques foresee either the formation of uranium dioxide or uranium metal according to a two-step reduction but the presence of these cathodic products is difficult to ascertain in controlled potential electrolysis. While mixing a lactone with tetrahydrofuran, the reversibility of the electrode reactions increases. The conducting salt noticeably determines the current yield of uranium deposition. As additional kinetic phenomena are made clear, we found that sampled polarography is the best method to gain a full understanding of the electrode mechanisms.

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One of the great 3D micro tomography (3D-mCT) applications in the medical area is the characterization of bone architecture, especially when it is spoken in osteoporosis because, among other factors, is characterized by the deterioration of the architecture. This work shows the 3D quantification, based on stereological concepts, of the bone tissue through 3D-mCT in real time. The analyses were carried out in femur rat and the 3D visualizations helped to understand bones morphology. The results showed the potential of this computational technique to verify the capability of characterization of the internal bone structures and the importance of the threshold level in the binarization process.

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This paper presents the first measurement of the elemental composition of the suspended particulate matter in the atmosphere of Londrina city (Paraná State, Brazil). The sampling was accomplished in the summer of 2003 and in the winter of 2002, with a stacker filter holder, collecting simultaneously the fine particulates (PM2.5) and the coarse particulates (PM10). The concentration of K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb associated with particulate matter was determined by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The results of the grouping analysis suggested that the elements in the aerosol particles came from two sources: soil re-suspension and industrial or anthropogenic activities.

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The Paraíba do Sul River is located in a strategic region between the most important urban and industrial centers of Brazil. In the last years, an increase in the water pollution has been reported, caused by the untreated domestic sewerage of the inhabitants, effluents discharged by various industries, mining activities and sand extraction from the riverbed. This work used total reflection X-ray fluorescence with synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF) to determine metals in the bioavailable and residual fractions from the surface sediments. The metals identified were Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba and Pb.

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Trace elements were determined in the surface waters of tributaries of the Sepetiba Bay, Brazil (Piraquê, Itá, São Francisco, Guarda, Guandu Mirim, Vala do Sangue and Engenho Novo rivers) by total reflection X-ray fluorescence using synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). Eighteen trace elements could be determined in the dissolved and the suspended particulate phases: Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr and Pb. The elemental concentration values were compared to the values recommended by the Brazilian legislation.

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Major and trace elements were determined in serum of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) using total reflection X-ray fluorescence induced by synchrotron radiation (SRTXRF). CML affects 1 to 2 people per 100,000 and accounts for 7-20% cases of leukemia. It was possible to determine the concentrations of the following elements: P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br and Rb. Using analysis of variance (ANOVA) it was observed that the contents of the P, S, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu and Rb elements differed significantly at a = 0.05 between groups of healthy subjects and CML patients and also genders (males and females).

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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors: G. R. Pereira, S. C. Conceiç?o, R. T. Lopes, M. J. Anjos, L. F. Oliveira, H. S. Rocha, and C. A. Perez

Summary  

The X-ray fluorescence microtomography (XRFMT) is a non-destructive technique, based on the detection of X-ray fluorescence emitted by the elements in the sample, and it is used to complement other techniques for sample characterization. In this work some tissues of human breast (healthy tissue, benign tumor and malignant tumor) have been analyzed in order to verify the efficiency of the system in the determination of the elemental distribution in these types of samples. The experiments were performed at the X-ray fluorescence beam line (D09B-XRF) of the Brazilian Synchrotron Light Source (LNLS), Campinas, Brazil. A white beam was used for the excitation of the elements and an HPGe detector detected the fluorescence photons. The incident beam was monitored by an ionization chamber and a fast scintillator detector was used to detect the transmitted radiation. All the tomographies have been reconstructed using a filtered-back projection algorithm. In the tissues samples, the elements of higher concentration were Zn, Cu and Fe.

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Summary  

The study of trace element levels is of great importance due to their relevance in agingand several neurodegenerative diseases. This work compares the elemental concentrations in different postnatal ages and between the temporal cortex, entorhinal cortex and hippocampus from Wistar rats, using X-ray total reflection fluorescence with synchrotron radiation. Ten elements were determined in brain samples: Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, (at trace level) and P, S, Cl and K (at major levels). The elements that increased with aging in cortical areas were: S, K, Fe, Cu and Zn. Ca and Zn levels decreased with advancing age in the hippocampus. In addition to this, Ti, Mn and Fe levels were more conspicuous in the entorhinal cortex.

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