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  • Author or Editor: F. Luan x
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The study site is the Honghe National Nature Reserve, a Ramsar designated site on the Sanjiang Plain in Northeast China. We present results regarding the spatial pattern and structure of plant communities in these most important natural but continually diminishing freshwater wetlands of China to help promote both protection and restoration. By investigating three ecological levels (landscape, ecosystem and community), this paper quantifies the characteristics of spatial pattern with the aim to identify specific ecological correlations with different hydrogeomorphic features. Specifically, the research involves hierarchical mapping of vegetation types by use of remote sensed data, and the coupling of landscape indices with fluvial topographic zones that have been deduced by GIS from DEM. Statistics from historical survey data are also used to measure the degradation of marshes as well as the historical change of the hydrological regime. We found that dominant is the Calamagrostis angustifolia — Carex spp. community type, a wet meadow and marsh complex within the prevailing landscape mosaic of shrubland and meadow. The results suggest that the sites’ hydro-geomorphic character has decisive influence on plant community structure and composition. There is only limited direct human interference in the sites and, as a consequence, the spatial pattern of vegetation distribution is natural. However, changes to the hydrological regime as the result of extensive irrigation activity in the surrounding area has led to rapid degradation of marsh wetlands within the sites, which threatens the ecological status in this storehouse of “Natural Genes” in the reserve.

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A simple and rapid capillary electrophoretic procedure for analysis of matrine and oxymatrine in Kushen medicinal preparations has been developed and optimized. Orthogonal design was used to optimize the separation and detection conditions for the two active components. Phosphate concentration, applied potential, organic modifier content, and buffer pH were selected as variable conditions. The optimized background electrolyte contained 70 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate and 30% acetonitrile at pH 5.5; the separation potential was 20 kV. Each analysis was complete within 5 min. Regression equations revealed linear relationships (r > 0.999) between peak area and amount for each component. The detection limits were 1.29 μg mL−1 for matrine and 1.48 μg mL−1 for oxymatrine. The levels of the two active compounds in two kinds of traditional Chinese medicinal preparation were easily determined with recoveries of 96.57–106.26%. In addition, multiple linear regression and a non-linear model using a radial basis function neural network approach were constructed for prediction of the migration time of oxymatrine. The predicted results were in good agreement with the experimental values, indicating that a radial basis function neural network is a potential means of prediction of separation time in capillary electrophoresis.

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Formaldehyde in aquatic products was determined by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Separation was carried out at 25 °C and 25 kV, using a fused silica capillary (75 µ internal diameter; 50.5 cm effective length) and an ultraviolet detector set at 360 nm. The optimal background electrolyte was 20 mM sodium tetraborate and 20 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate at pH 9.0 with 3 s hydrodynamic injection at 30 mbar. Electrophoretic analysis took approximately 6.5 min. The correlation coefficient of the calibration curve was 0.999 over the concentration range 2.0–100.0 mg L−1, and the LOD and LOQ values were 0.57 and 1.89 µg mL−1, respectively. The recoveries were from 83.7% to 97.2% with steam distillation as the sample pretreatment method.

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