(Hughes) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) has been reported from Africa, Asia and Europe, often in association with
Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), one of the most important pests of strawberry, cucumber and eggplant in different parts of the world.
is often observed for a limited time on plants in the absence of prey, feeding on alternative and supplementary foods and reaching high population levels. In this study, we test the hypothesis that various fungi (recorded in association with the host plant) could be suitable food source for the predatory mite
. In the laboratory, we compared the developmental times, survival and oviposition rates of the predatory mite feeding on the primary food
or mycelium and spores of
Aspergillus niger, Alternaria solani, Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium italicum
as alternative or supplementary food. Results indicated that the fungi,
A. niger, A. solani
are adequate food sources for generalist mite survival and development.
was able to sustain oviposition when fed on the fungus
, so it was proved to be an alternative food, conversely the predator failed to oviposit when fed on
, hence, both fungi can be consider as supplementary food for the predator. The fungus
is proved to be inadequate food, since most of protonymphs failed to complete its development and reach adult female. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding preference and the effect of food items (pest mite or fungi) commonly present on strawberry, cucumber and pepper in fields or greenhouses.
The biology of Agistemus exsertus Gonzalez was studied using two different insect eggs, Ephestia kuehniella Zeller and Parlatoria zizyphus (Lucas) as the food source. The development was faster and reproduction was higher when A. exsertus fed on eggs of E. kuehniella. A total of 97.78 and 75.27 eggs per female were obtained when eggs of E. kuehniella and P. zizyphus were provided respectively. A diet of E. kuehniella (eggs) provided the greatest female longevity and mean total fecundity which resulted in the higher net reproductive rate (Ro) value (61.25), intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm = 0.196) and finite rate of increase (rm = 1.22) per day for A. exsertus. A diet of P. zizyphus (eggs) resulted in close values of T = 21.70; rm = 0.174; e r m = 1.19. The sex rate of the progeny was strongly female biased (female/total = 0.72 and 0.66) when both eggs of E. kuehniella and P. zizyphus were provided.
Laboratory studies were conducted on the acceptability of pollen grains of Ricinus communis (L.) and Helianthus annuus L. to Amblyseius zaheri Yousef and El-Borolossy, Euseius yousefi Zaher and El-Borolossy, Amblyseius lindquisti Schuster and Pritchard, Typhlodromus balanites El-Badry, Typhlodromus sennarensis El-Badry and Amblyseius cabonus (Schicha) as indicated by effect on development, survival, oviposition and life table parameters. A. zaheri and E. yousefi had a shorter developmental period on both pollen grains than A. lindquisti. Development was not completed in case of T. balanites, T. sennarensis and A. cabonus. A. zaheri and E. yousefi showed the highest oviposition rate when fed R. communis compared to H. annuus. A. lindquisti failed to lay any eggs when fed on both pollen grains. On both predator species, a diet of R. communis provided the shortest generation time (T) relatively, greatest female longevity and mean total fecundity (f) which resulted in the highest net reproductive rate (Ro) value (41.46 and 43.28 expected females per female), intrinsic rate of increase (rm = 0.279 and 0.258) and finite rate of increase (er m = 1.322 and 1.294 per day) for A. zaheri and E. yousefi respectively.
Juvenile survival and development in
(Athias Henriot) and
Ribaga feeding on con- and heterospecific phytoseiid immatures were studied in the laboratory at 28±1 °C and 70±5% RH and 16 h photoperiod. Larvae of all phytoseiids studied do not feed at all to reach the subsequent life stage. The majority (approximately 90%) of
protonymphs cannibalizing larvae died before reaching the deutonymphal stage. Only two individuals completed juvenile development.All
protonymphs failed to reach the subsequent stage and reach the adulthood when offered interspecificaly prey. Cannibalizing immature individuals of
were able to reach adulthood. The mean developmental times of cannibalizing
and when feeding on
larvae were similar and significantly shorter than that the former fed on larvae of
led to a significantly longer developmental period than the former fed interspecifically. Protonymphs and deutonymphs of
ate nearly twice more of
larvae than when fed con- or heterospecifically prey. The present study indicates that
showed from a very low tendency to feed on conspecific prey to nontendency to feed heterospecific prey. Results show also that phytoseiid immatures are suitable prey for developing stages of some polyphagous phytoseiids. Since all 3 phytoseiids inhabiting fig trees, their immatures can be regarded as potential prey for competitive phytoseiids (
) in time of food scarcity (eriophyid mites).
The direct toxicity of two essential oils,Majorana hortensis,Moench and Rosmarinus officinalis L.to adult females of the predacious mites,Amblyseius zaheri Yousef and El-Borolossy,Amblyseius barkeri (Hughes)and Typhlodromus athiasae Porath and Swirski were tested.Rosemary oil was the most toxic to fe- males of A.barkeri and the least to A.zaheri.In contrast,sweet marjoram oil was relatively toxic to T.athiasae and slightly toxic to A.barkeri.Both essential oils,decreased the food consumption rate at the concentration used for A.barkeri and A.zaheri.Females of A.barkeri and A.zaheri suffered a depression in reproduction when treated with 1% of rosemary oil.Both material used seems to be harmless to T.athiasae at 1%.
The direct toxicity of four essential oils, Majorana hortensis Moench, Rosmarinus officinalis L., Mentha piperita L. and Lavandula officinalis Chaix, to adult females of the predacious mite Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot were tested. Peppermint oil was the most toxic to females A. swiriskii while the French lavender oil was the least toxic to the predator. All essential oils, at the two concentrations used, decreased the food consumption rate as well as egg laying. All four materials tested, at concentration 0.25% were considered to be safe for the predator since no mortalities had been recorded.
The direct toxicity of the essential oil, Ocimum basilicum L. to females of six species of predacious mites of the family phytoseiidae was tested. The phytoseiid mites tested namely, Typhlodromus athiasae Porath and Swirski, Euseius yousefi Zaher and El-Borolossy, Amblyseius zaheri Yousef and El-Borolossy, Amblyseius deleoni (Muma and Denmark), Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot and Amblyseius barkeri (Hughes). Sweet basil oil was highly toxic to females E. yousefi and was relatively intoxic to females A. swirskii. The essential oil has a close toxic effect for predator species, T. athiasae and A. barkeri. With the exception of A. zaheri, females of all predacious mites tested suffered a depression in reproduction and food consumption when treated with sweet basil oil at conc. 2%.
Influence of plant leaf texture of camphor, guava and fig on development, reproduction and life table parameters of the phytoseiid mite, Cydnoseius zaheri (Yousef and El Borolossy) was studied at 27 °C and 70% R.H. as rearing substrates. Cydnoseius zaheri successfully developed and reproduced on different plant leaves. Guava and camphor leaves were the most appropriate surfaces as individuals induced the shortest generation period and the highest reproduction rate. In contrast, fig leaf was the least suitable surface. A total of 53.0, 41.6 and 36.9 eggs/&8482; were obtained when guava, camphor and fig leaves were provided as rearing substrates. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) and the finite rate of increase (exp rm) were 0.280 and 1.323 on camphor, 0.261 and 1.298 on guava and 0.169 and 1.183 on fig, respectively. Cydnoseius zaheri showed the highest fecundity rate (Mx), which compensated its lowest survival rate (Lx), on guava leaf. However, the predator exhibited the highest survival rate and the lowest fecundity rate on fig leaf.
The direct toxicity of the essential oil Lavendula officinalis Chais to egg stage and adult females of the predacious mites, Euseius yousefi Zaher and El-Borolossy, Neoseiulus barkeri (hughes), Amblyseius zaheri Yousef and El-Borolossy and Typhlodromus athiase Porth and Swirski was studied. French Lavender oil was highly toxic to both stages of E. yousefi and relatively in toxic to T. athiase. A depression on consumption was recorded on A. zaheri and E. yousefi, while a depression on reproduction was reported only in case of E. yousefi, when females treated with LC25 concentration. French Lavender oil, at concentration of (LC25) was considered to be safe for A. zaheri, N. barkeri and T. athiase, since no mortalities had been recorded.
Authors:F. M. Momen, M. M. Abdelkader and S. F. Fahim
The chemical composition of essential oil extracted from leaves of the medicinal plant Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds growing in Egypt, were determined through Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry ( GC/MS). The analyses revealed that the major component of M. longifolia was Monterpene ketone (piperitone oxide). Mentha longifolia was potent for the pest Tetranychus urticae Koch with a significant increase in repellency. In addition, it exhibited strong oviposition deterrence to the pest based on a 99.4% reduction of the total number of eggs on leaf discs treated with the oil. The LC50 values of M. longifolia against eggs, nymphs and females of T. urticae by fumigant application, were 2.95, 3.47, 3.74 μL / L, while the LC90 values were 8.99, 9.41, 11.01 μL/ L, respectively.
The toxicity of M. longifolia oil by fumigant application to females and eggs of 3 predatory phytoseiid mites was tested. Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) is extremely insusceptible to M. longifolia oil than the pest T. urticae and both phytoseiid mites, Neoseiuls barkeri (Hughes) and Typhlodromips swirskii (Athias Henriot) under laboratory conditions. When both stages of tested predatory mites, exposed to fumigant of LC50 and LC90 μL/L values reported on T. urticae, female’s mortality of N. californicus was lesser than that reported on N. barkeri and T. swirskii.
These show that the fumigant toxicity of M. longifolia oil has the highest lethal activity to the pest T. urticae and the least to the predatory mite N. californicus. Results indicated that the mode of delivery of the essential oil was largely a result of action in the vapor phase via respiratory system. Data was suggested that M. longifolia oil have the potential agent to be used in the maintainable management of T. urticae combined with N. californicus.