Solid state reactions of sputter-deposited Nb/Al multilayer thin films, with periodicities in the range 10–333 nm, have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The first phase to form upon annealing the films in NbAl3. Constant-heating-rate calorimetric measurements show the presence of two peaks for the formation of this phase, while isothermal scans reveal that the first peak is associated with a nucleation and growth type transformation. The formation of NbAl3 is thus interpreted as a two-stage process of nucleation and growth to coalescence (first peak) followed by growth until the consumption of one or both reactants (second peak).
This paper aims to give an overview on the different aspects of QTL analysis of quality traits of wheat through the brief introduction of molecular genetics, cereal chemistry and the statistical methods developed and applied recently in this area. Some examples are also provided, based on the author's research activity carried out in the National Wheat Molecular Marker Program (NWMMP) established in Australia in 1996.
A simple, selective, and precise stability-indicating reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the determination of nilotinib. Nilotinib was subjected to acid and alkali hydrolysis, oxidation, thermal, and photo-degradation. The degradation products were well separated from the pure drug. The method was based on isocratic elution of nilotinib and its degradation products on reversed phase C18 column (100 mm × 4.6 mm, 3.5 μm) — Zorbax Eclipse Plus using a mobile phase consisting of 10 mM KH2PO4:acetonitrile (54.5:45.5%, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL min−1. Quantitation was achieved with UV detection at 265 nm. Linearity, accuracy and precision were found to be acceptable over the concentration range of 0.1–80 μg mL−1. The drug was found to be susceptible to acid and base hydrolysis but resistant to oxidation, dry heat degradation, and photodegradation. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of nilotinib in bulk and in its pharmaceutical preparation.
The heats of hydration reactions for MgCl2⋅4H2O and MgCl2⋅2H2O include two parts, reaction enthalpy and adsorption heat of aqueous vapor on the surfaces of magnesium chloride hydrates.
The hydration heat for the reactions MgCl2⋅4H2O+2H2O→MgCl2⋅6H2O and MgCl2⋅2H2O+2H2O→MgCl2⋅4H2O, measured by DSC-111, is –30.36 and –133.94 kJ mol–1,respectively. The adsorption heat of these hydration processes, measured by head-on chromatography method, is –13.06 and
–16.11 kJ mol–1, respectively. The molar enthalpy change for the above two reactions is –16.64 and –118.09 kJ mol–1, respectively. The comparison between the experimental data and the theoretical values for these hydration processes indicates
that the results obtained in this study are quite reliable.
Authors:J. Zhu, H. Jin, D. Dong, D. Qiang, and F. Ma
The glass formation and devitrification of GaF3-based glasses were studied by differential scanning calorimetry. A comparison of various simple quantitative methods to assess
the level of stability of multicomponent fluoride glass systems is presented. Most of these methods are based on critical
temperatures. In this paper a new parameter kb(T) is added to the stability criteria. The stability of several GaF3-based glasses were experimentally evaluated and correlated with the activation energies of crystallization via this new kinetic
criterion and compared with those evaluated by other criteria.
Authors:B. Zhang, Y. Li, Q. Li, B. Ma, F. Gan, Z. Zhang, H. Cheng, and F. Yang
External-beam PIXE was used for the non-destructive analysis of early glasses unearthed from the tombs of Warring States (475–221BC) and Han Dynasty (BC 206–AD 220) in south China. It was found that these glasses were basically attributed to PbO—BaO—SiO2 system and K2O—SiO2 system. The results from the cluster analysis showed that some glasses had exactly the same recipe. The source of the K2O flux and the correlation between PbO and BaO are discussed. Some archeological information is revealed.
Authors:F. Kohler, F. Gillet, M.A. Progin, J.M. Gobat, and A. Buttler
A cell-grid method was used to survey seasonal changes in four herbaceous communities of a wooded pasture. Permanent plots consisted in 1-m2 grids subdivided into 100 cells of 1 dm2. In each cell of each plot and every month from May to September, we estimated dominance, and grazing occurrence of all species. Plant communities included an eutrophic grazed meadow, a temporary refused meadow, an underwood herb community and an oligotrophic lawn. Our results showed that seasonal changes in species composition were very strong and scale-dependent. Changes at plot scale were mainly driven by a seasonal shift. Changes at cell scale suggested high small-scale dynamics of species. Despite high changes at cell scale, the structure of the community did not change and local species richness did not show any trend. We found no correlation between the turnover at cell scale and cattle activity. We conclude that dynamics and internal species turnover of the community at fine scale and short time seem more driven by internal characteristics of the community than by disturbances induced by cattle. Furthermore, at seasonal scale, plant communities may be stable in their structure despite fluctuations in their texture.
Authors:C.S. Munita, R.P. Paiva, M.A. Alves, E.F. Momose, and M. Saiki
Archaeological ceramic fragments from Água Limpa site, in São Paulo, Brazil, were analyzed using instrumental neutron activation analysis. Multivariate statistical methods including Pearson correlation coefficient, cluster and principal components analysis were used to interpret the concentration data. Rare earth and alkaline elements were highly correlated. Six principal components explained 74.9% of the total variance and five clusters were found. The sample chemical composition showed that all samples have the same provenance.
Authors:Y. Qi, F. Xu, H. Ma, L. Sun, J. Zhang, and T. Jiang
Polyaniline/γ-Al2O3 (PANI/γ-Al2O3) composites were synthesized by in-situ polymerization at the presence of HCl as dopant by adding γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles into aniline solution. The composites were characterized by FTIR and XRD. The thermogravimetry (TG) and modulated
differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) were used to study the thermal stability and glass transition temperature (Tg) of the composites, respectively.
The results of FTIR showed that γ-Al2O3 nanoparticles connected with the PANI chains and affected the absorption characteristics of the composite through the interaction
between PANI and nano-sized γ-Al2O3. And the results of XRD indicated that the peaks intensity of the PANI/γ-Al2O3 composite were weaker than that of the pure PANI. From TG and derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) curves, it was found that
the pure PANI and the PANI/γ-Al2O3 composites were all one step degradation. And the PANI/γ-Al2O3 composites were more thermal stable than the pure PANI. The MDSC curves showed that the nano-sized γ-Al2O3 heightened the glass transition temperature (Tg) of PANI.
Authors:E.A.N. Fernandes, F.S. Tagliaferro, P. Bode, M.A. Bacchi, and G.A. Sarriés
In a preliminary study performed with the waste rocks from the future uranium mine to be explored in Brazil, 106 samples were taken from the eight main lithologies found in the massif and analysed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for 20 elements. For samples from the same lithology, a high variability in the concentration of most of the elements was found (coefficient of variation larger than 20%), which might be attributed to either insufficient homogenisation of minerals or to local variation within lithology. The hypothesis that the variability within the lithology does not have an influence to the total variability was tested by analysing 5 replicates of the 5 most contrasting samples from the predominant lithology (plagioclase-microcline-gneiss), chosen after applying statistical evaluation (principal components and cluster analyses). Results indicated that homogenisation of samples was adequate due to low variation among replicates. The hypothesis tested was rejected with a confidence level higher than 99% for all the elements, corroborating the large intra-lithology variability.