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Abstract  

A conceptual framework is suggested within which various techniques for studying scientific advance may be viewed. The two axes arerelevance of the technique to a true measure of the rate of scientific advance, versusobjectivity of the technique. It is suggested that a situation exists somewhat analogous to the Heisenberg uncertainty, principle; the most objective technique, a simple publication count, is the least relevant to a true measure of scientific advance, while the most relevant technique, interviews with an eminent and knowledgeable scientist in the field, is the least objective. Between these two extremes lie a group of scientometric techniques which should be capable of producing analyses which are both satisfactorilly relevant and satisfactorily objective.

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Abstract  

Patent indicators are used in the evaluation of industrial research at many different levels of aggregation. They are used in policy-level applications to look at industrial research capability from a national or regional viewpoint comparing, for example, EU regional technology with that of Japan and North America. They are used in strategic-level applications to look at industrial research from a company viewpoint. For example, CHI Research, Inc. has used them to compare auto company research output company-by-company and technology-by-technology. They are used in tactical-level applications, typically involving technology tracing—where the performance of research groups is measured against one another within the domain of a specific technology. At the tactical level these indicators can characterize industrial research in three planes or stages: The early Precursor Plane, the current Technology Plane and the future-oriented Successor Plane. Finally, at the most precise level of evaluation, patent indicator techniques are now beginning to be used in the United States in establishing the value of patent portfolios for cross-licensing purposes, and in patent infringement litigation, where citation techniques demonstrate the importance and utility of patented technology.

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Abstract  

In our 1975 monograph Evaluative Bibliometrics we discussed the many uses of publication and citation analysis in the evaluation of scientific activities, and some of the basic statistical properties of the scientific literature, particularly the skewness of the distributions of publications and citations, reference time distributions, and various anomalies in the citation patterns from one country to another. Over the last ten years we have devoted much of our energy to the development of an analogous research base and infrastructure for patent bibliometrics, that is for the use of patents, and patent citations in the evaluation of technological activities. There are remarkable similarities between literature bibliometrics and patent bibliometrics, and they are both applicable to the same wide ranges of problems. This paper will show that there are striking similarities between literature and patent distributions of national productivity, inventor productivity, referencing cycles, citation impact and within country citation preferences.

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Abstract  

A unification of more than one million non-patent references (NPR's) on the front pages of U.S. and EPO patents has been carried out, with a subsequent match to theScience Citation Index (SCI), in order to investigate the citation linkage between patented technology and the scientific research literature. The U.S. system shows an extremely rapid increase in linkage, with citations from U.S. patents to U.S. authored papers increasing more than three-fold over the last decade. The EPO system does not show any increase; the occurrence of non-patent references appears to be relatively constant in the EPO system over the last decade. In the U.S. system approximately 75 percent of the cited papers originate in public science institutions, showing large dependence of patented industrial technology on public science. We expect to find similar result in the EPO system.

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Abstract  

A country by subject count of the serial periodical collection at the British Library Lending Division (BLLD) in 1973 is reported and compared to previous counts. Approximately 25 000 periodicals have titles indicating that they are scientific journals in nine fields of the physical and biological sciences, engineering, and mathematics. The overall subject distribution of the journals appears to be remarkably stable when compared to a similar count byHulme 60 years ago, although the number of journals appears to have doubled in the last 60 years. A major shift was found in the national origin of the journals, when compared withHulme's counts, with a notable rise in the number and percent of U.S. journals, and a sharp decline in the percentage of French and German journals.

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Abstract  

Citation and referencing data from recent biotechnology patents and bioscience papers is used to show that the bibliometric properties in these two realms are quite similar. Specifically, it is shown that the time distribution of references from both patents and papers are similar, with peak citing at two to four years prior to publication or issue. This is shown to hold for patents citing patents, for papers citing papers, and for patents citing papers. Furthermore, it is shown that there is a very skewed distribution of cited material in both patents and papers, with a relatively small number of highly cited patents and papers, and a relatively large number of documents which are cited only once or twice, or not at all. Finally, it is shown that there is a substantial amount of citation from biotechnology patents to the central scientific literature. We conclude from this that science and technology are far more closely linked today than is normally perceived, and that, in fact, the division between leading edge biotechnology and modern bioscience has alsmot completely disappeared.

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Abstract  

Three different types of bibliometrics — literature bibliometrics, patent bibliometrics, and linkage bibliometric can all be used to address various government performance and results questions. Applications of these three bibliometric types will be described within the framework of Weinberg's internal and external criteria, whether the work being done is good science, efficiently and effectively done, and whether it is important science from a technological viewpoint. Within all bibliometrics the fundamental assumption is that the frequency with which a set of papers or patents is cited is a measure of the impact or influence of the set of papers. The literature bibliometric indicators are counts of publications and citations received in the scientific literature and various derived indicators including such phenomena as cross-sectoral citation, coauthorship and concentration within influential journals. One basic observation of literature bibliometrics, which carries over to patent bibliometrics, is that of highly skewed distributions — with a relatively small number of high-impact patents and papers, and large numbers of patents and papers of minimal impact. The key measure is whether an agency is producing or supporting highly cited papers and patents. The final set of data are in the area of linkage bibliometrics, looking at citations from patents to scientific papers. These are particularly relevant to the external criteria, in that it is quite obvious that institutions and supporting agencies whose papers are highly cited in patents are making measurable contributions to a nation's technological progress.

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Abstract  

During the Cultural Revolution (1966–1976), scientific work came to a halt in China. Universities closed, primary and secondary school education shut down, and intellectuals (including scientists and engineers) were sent to the countryside or to factories to work. The effects of the Cultural Revolution are reflected in China's output of scientific literature. In 1973, for example, only one Chinese paper appeared in any of the world's 2300 most central journals covered by theScience Citation Index. After restrictive policies were loosened, however, scientific papers grew exponentially. By 1982, only six years after the Cultural Revolution ended, Chinese scientists produced 932 papers. This exponential growth of papers leveled off at this point and the number of papers appearing in the core 2300 journal stood at approximately 1000 in 1983 and 1984.

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Abstract  

Under the sponsorship of the U.S. National Science Foundation, CHI Research, Inc. developed the bibliometric indicators for the U.S. National Science Board'sScience Indicators Reports starting withScience Indicators 1972. In the work reported here, for the Commission of the European Communities, CHI has extended the Science Indicators techniques and database to a study of publication, coauthorship and citation within 28 scientific fields related to various European Community programs.Perhaps the most important finding of the research was that internationally coauthored papers — papers authored by scientists affiliated with institutions in more than one EC country — were cited two times as highly as papers authored by scientists working at a single institution within a single country. These EC-EC internationally coauthored papers were cited as highly as EC-Non EC and Non-EC papers. This indicates that the internationally linked European science is of as high impact as any other science in the world.A second key finding was that, after compensating for national scientific size, the degree of international coauthorship did not appear to be particularly dependent upon size. However, linguistic and cultural factors were found to be very strong. The patterns of coauthorship amongst the European countries are far from homogeneous, and are quite heavily affected by linguistic, historical, and cultural factors.Finally, it was found that international coauthorship is increasing steadily, both within and outside of the Community, with some evidence that international cooperation is increasing more rapidly in scientific fields that have been targeted by the Commission.

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